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Open AccessArticle

Typification for Façade Structures Based on User Perception

1,2,3,*, 4,*, 5 and 6
Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Nanjing Normal University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023, China
College of Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
GIScience Research Group, University of Heidelberg, Berlinerstr.48, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany
Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Grain Circulation and Safety, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Modern Logistics, Nanjing University of Finance and Economic, Nanjing 210003, China
Nanjing Institute of Surveying, MappingandGeotechnical Investigation, Co. Ltd., Nanjing 210019, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(12), 239;
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
PDF [3257 KB, uploaded 9 December 2016]


Typification is a well-established operator of map generalization. Although it is widely used in many existing research fields, less discussion has been devoted to the quality of typification. This paper presents a user survey for the evaluation of different typification results of façade structures under different constraints. The survey shows that preservation of the shape of the features is the most important constraint for a reasonable typification process, which has also been quantitatively verified by calculating the similarities between the typified façades and the original façade using attributed relational graph (ARG) and nested earth mover’s distance (NEMD) algorithms. Based on that, an algorithm is developed to generate perceivably reasonable representation from the original facade with decreasing map scale. The algorithm is implemented and tested on a number of façades. Experiments reveal that the typification can be automatically conducted and can create results which are well associated with the original façades. View Full-Text
Keywords: generalization; typification; user survey; attributed relational graph (ARG) generalization; typification; user survey; attributed relational graph (ARG)

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Shen, J.; Fan, H.; Mao, B.; Wang, M. Typification for Façade Structures Based on User Perception. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5, 239.

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