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Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Spatial Accessibility to Primary Health Care in Bhutan

Department of Spatial sciences, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6000, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Suzana Dragicevic and Wolfgang Kainz
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4(3), 1584-1604;
Received: 12 March 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 August 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bridging the Gap between Geospatial Theory and Technology)
PDF [1202 KB, uploaded 1 September 2015]


Geographic information systems (GIS) can be effectively utilized to carry out spatio-temporal analysis of spatial accessibility to primary healthcare services. Spatial accessibility to primary healthcare services is commonly measured using floating catchment area models which are generally defined with three variables; namely, an attractiveness component of the service centre, travel time or distance between the locations of the service centre and the population, and population demand for healthcare services. The nearest-neighbour modified two-step floating catchment area (NN-M2SFCA) model is proposed for computing spatial accessibility indices for the entire country. Accessibility values from 2010 to 2013 for Bhutan were analysed both spatially and temporally by producing accessibility ranking maps, plotting Lorenz curves, and conducting spatial clustering analysis. The spatial accessibility indices of the 205 sub-districts show great disparities in healthcare accessibility in the country. The mean- and median-based classification results indicate that, in 2013, 24 percent of Bhutan’s population have poor access to primary healthcare services, 66 percent of the population have medium-level access, and 10 percent have good access. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial accessibility; primary healthcare; Bhutan; floating catchment area; GIS spatial accessibility; primary healthcare; Bhutan; floating catchment area; GIS

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Jamtsho, S.; Corner, R.; Dewan, A. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Spatial Accessibility to Primary Health Care in Bhutan. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4, 1584-1604.

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