Next Article in Journal
Reconfiguration Analysis of an RRRRS Single-Loop Mechanism
Next Article in Special Issue
Beyond the Sex Doll: Post-Human Companionship and the Rise of the ‘Allodoll’
Previous Article in Journal
3D Printed End of Arm Tooling (EOAT) for Robotic Automation
Previous Article in Special Issue
User Evaluation of the Neurodildo: A Mind-Controlled Sex Toy for People with Disabilities and an Exploration of Its Applications to Sex Robots
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

She’s Electric—The Influence of Body Proportions on Perceived Gender of Robots across Cultures

School of International Liberal Studies, Waseda University, 11-1430, 1-6-1 Nishi-Waseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050, Japan
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima 32, Peru
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of Trovato, G.; Lucho, C.; Eyssel, F.; Bernotat, J. The Influence of Body Proportions on Perceived Gender of Robots in Latin America. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Love and Sex with Robots, LSR 2017, London, UK, 19–20 December 2017.
Robotics 2018, 7(3), 50;
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Love and Sex with Robot)
PDF [1176 KB, uploaded 5 September 2018]


The assignment of gender to robots is a debatable topic. Subtle aspects related to gender, in a robot’s appearance, may create biased expectations of the robot’s abilities and influence user acceptance. The present research is a cross-cultural study involving more than 150 participants to investigate the perception of gender in robot design by manipulating body proportions. We are focusing specifically on the contrast between two extremely different cultures: Peruvian and Japanese. From the survey based on stimuli varying in the proportion between chest, waist, and hips, the results indicate the importance of chest-to-hip ratio and waist-to-hip ratio in the attribution of gender to robots. View Full-Text
Keywords: robot design; humanoid robots; gender robot design; humanoid robots; gender

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Trovato, G.; Lucho, C.; Paredes, R. She’s Electric—The Influence of Body Proportions on Perceived Gender of Robots across Cultures. Robotics 2018, 7, 50.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Robotics EISSN 2218-6581 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top