Next Article in Journal
The TOR Signaling Network in the Model Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Previous Article in Journal
Regulation of Autophagy through TORC1 and mTORC1
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Biomolecules 2017, 7(3), 53;

MYC-Driven Pathways in Breast Cancer Subtypes

Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jürg Bähler
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [205 KB, uploaded 11 July 2017]


The transcription factor MYC (MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor) is an essential signaling hub in multiple cellular processes that sustain growth of many types of cancers. MYC regulates expression of RNA, both protein and non-coding, that control central metabolic pathways, cell death, proliferation, differentiation, stress pathways, and mechanisms of drug resistance. Activation of MYC has been widely reported in breast cancer progression. Breast cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease and treatment options are primarily guided by histological and biochemical evaluations of the tumors. Based on biochemical markers, three main breast cancer categories are ER+ (estrogen receptor alpha positive), HER2+ (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive), and TNBC (triple-negative breast cancer; estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, HER2 negative). MYC is elevated in TNBC compared with other cancer subtypes. Interestingly, MYC-driven pathways are further elevated in aggressive breast cancer cells and tumors that display drug resistant phenotype. Identification of MYC target genes is essential in isolating signaling pathways that drive tumor development. In this review, we address the role of MYC in the three major breast cancer subtypes and highlight the most promising leads to target MYC functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; ER; HER2; TNBC; drug resistance breast cancer; ER; HER2; TNBC; drug resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fallah, Y.; Brundage, J.; Allegakoen, P.; Shajahan-Haq, A.N. MYC-Driven Pathways in Breast Cancer Subtypes. Biomolecules 2017, 7, 53.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Biomolecules EISSN 2218-273X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top