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Article

Diallyl Sulfide Attenuation of Carcinogenesis in Mammary Epithelial Cells through the Inhibition of ROS Formation, and DNA Strand Breaks

1
Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA
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Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
3
Medical Readiness Systems Biology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Sparatore
Biomolecules 2021, 11(9), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11091313
Received: 6 May 2021 / Revised: 20 August 2021 / Accepted: 1 September 2021 / Published: 6 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Bio-inspired Molecules)
Garlic has long been used medicinally for many diseases, including cancer. One of the active garlic components is diallyl sulfide (DAS), which prevents carcinogenesis and reduces the incidence rate of several cancers. In this study, non-cancerous MCF-10A cells were used as a model to investigate the effect of DAS on Benzo (a)pyrene (BaP)-induced cellular carcinogenesis. The cells were evaluated based on changes in proliferation, cell cycle arrest, the formation of peroxides, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, the generation of DNA strand breaks, and DNA Polymerase β (Pol β) expression. The results obtained indicate that when co-treated with BaP, DAS inhibited BaP-induced cell proliferation (p < 0.05) to levels similar to the negative control. BaP treatment results in a two-fold increase in the accumulation of cells in the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle, which is restored to baseline levels, similar to untreated cells and vehicle-treated cells, when pretreated with 6 μM and 60 μM DAS, respectively. Co-treatment with DAS (60 μM and 600 μM) inhibited BaP-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by 132% and 133%, respectively, as determined by the accumulation of H2O2 in the extracellular medium and an increase in 8-OHdG levels of treated cells. All DAS concentrations inhibited BaP-induced DNA strand breaks through co-treatment and pre-treatment methods at all time points evaluated. Co-Treatment with 60 μM DAS increased DNA Pol β expression in response to BaP-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. These results indicate that DAS effectively inhibited BaP-induced cell proliferation, cell cycle transitions, ROS, and DNA damage in an MCF-10A cell line. These results provide more experimental evidence for garlic’s antitumor abilities and corroborate many epidemiological studies regarding the association between the increased intake of garlic and the reduced risk of several types of cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: diallyl sulfide; benzo(a)pyrene; carcinogenesis; peroxide formation; DNA strand breaks; MCF-10A cells diallyl sulfide; benzo(a)pyrene; carcinogenesis; peroxide formation; DNA strand breaks; MCF-10A cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Darling-Reed, S.F.; Nkrumah-Elie, Y.; Ferguson, D.T.; Flores-Rozas, H.; Mendonca, P.; Messeha, S.; Hudson, A.; Badisa, R.B.; Tilghman, S.L.; Womble, T.; Day, A.; Jett, M.; Hammamieh, R.; Soliman, K.F.A. Diallyl Sulfide Attenuation of Carcinogenesis in Mammary Epithelial Cells through the Inhibition of ROS Formation, and DNA Strand Breaks. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11091313

AMA Style

Darling-Reed SF, Nkrumah-Elie Y, Ferguson DT, Flores-Rozas H, Mendonca P, Messeha S, Hudson A, Badisa RB, Tilghman SL, Womble T, Day A, Jett M, Hammamieh R, Soliman KFA. Diallyl Sulfide Attenuation of Carcinogenesis in Mammary Epithelial Cells through the Inhibition of ROS Formation, and DNA Strand Breaks. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(9):1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11091313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Darling-Reed, Selina F., Yasmeen Nkrumah-Elie, Dominique T. Ferguson, Hernan Flores-Rozas, Patricia Mendonca, Samia Messeha, Alicia Hudson, Ramesh B. Badisa, Syreeta L. Tilghman, Tracy Womble, Agnes Day, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh, and Karam F.A. Soliman 2021. "Diallyl Sulfide Attenuation of Carcinogenesis in Mammary Epithelial Cells through the Inhibition of ROS Formation, and DNA Strand Breaks" Biomolecules 11, no. 9: 1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11091313

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