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Alzheimer’s Disease and Diabetes: Role of Diet, Microbiota and Inflammation in Preclinical Models

1
Division of Physiology, School of Medicine, Universidad de Cadiz, 11003 Cadiz, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigacion e Innovacion en Ciencias Biomedicas de la Provincia de Cadiz (INIBICA), 11009 Cadiz, Spain
3
Salus Infirmorum, Universidad de Cadiz, 11005 Cadiz, Spain
4
Department of Endocrinology, Jerez Hospital, Jerez de la Frontera, 11407 Cadiz, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Marcus O.W. Grimm
Biomolecules 2021, 11(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020262
Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 5 February 2021 / Accepted: 5 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Epidemiological studies show the association between AD and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), although the mechanisms are not fully understood. Dietary habits and lifestyle, that are risk factors in both diseases, strongly modulate gut microbiota composition. Also, the brain-gut axis plays a relevant role in AD, diabetes and inflammation, through products of bacterial metabolism, like short-chain fatty acids. We provide a comprehensive review of current literature on the relation between dysbiosis, altered inflammatory cytokines profile and microglia in preclinical models of AD, T2DM and models that reproduce both diseases as commonly observed in the clinic. Increased proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and TNF-α, are widely detected. Microbiome analysis shows alterations in Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes phyla, among others. Altered α- and β-diversity is observed in mice depending on genotype, gender and age; therefore, alterations in bacteria taxa highly depend on the models and approaches. We also review the use of pre- and probiotic supplements, that by favoring a healthy microbiome ameliorate AD and T2DM pathologies. Whereas extensive studies have been carried out, further research would be necessary to fully understand the relation between diet, microbiome and inflammation in AD and T2DM. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; type 2 diabetes mellitus; microbiota; diet; microglia; inflammation Alzheimer’s disease; type 2 diabetes mellitus; microbiota; diet; microglia; inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carranza-Naval, M.J.; Vargas-Soria, M.; Hierro-Bujalance, C.; Baena-Nieto, G.; Garcia-Alloza, M.; Infante-Garcia, C.; del Marco, A. Alzheimer’s Disease and Diabetes: Role of Diet, Microbiota and Inflammation in Preclinical Models. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 262. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020262

AMA Style

Carranza-Naval MJ, Vargas-Soria M, Hierro-Bujalance C, Baena-Nieto G, Garcia-Alloza M, Infante-Garcia C, del Marco A. Alzheimer’s Disease and Diabetes: Role of Diet, Microbiota and Inflammation in Preclinical Models. Biomolecules. 2021; 11(2):262. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020262

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carranza-Naval, Maria J.; Vargas-Soria, Maria; Hierro-Bujalance, Carmen; Baena-Nieto, Gloria; Garcia-Alloza, Monica; Infante-Garcia, Carmen; del Marco, Angel. 2021. "Alzheimer’s Disease and Diabetes: Role of Diet, Microbiota and Inflammation in Preclinical Models" Biomolecules 11, no. 2: 262. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom11020262

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