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Open AccessArticle

The Unique Lipidomic Signatures of Saccharina latissima Can Be Used to Pinpoint Their Geographic Origin

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Centro de Espetrometria de Massa, Departamento de Química & QOPNA, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Departamento de Química & CESAM & ECOMARE, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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Departamento de Biologia & CESAM & ECOMARE, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
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C-Weed Aquaculture, 35400 St. Malo, France
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Department of Environment and New Resources, SINTEF Ocean, 7465 Trondheim, Norway
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Seaweed Energy Solution AS, Bynesveien 48, 7018 Trondheim, Norway
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Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban PA37 1QA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2020, 10(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010107
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 2 January 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2020 / Published: 8 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids of Marine Algae)
The aquaculture of macroalgae for human consumption and other high-end applications is experiencing unprecedented development in European countries, with the brown algae Saccharina latissima being the flag species. However, environmental conditions in open sea culture sites are often unique, which may impact the biochemical composition of cultured macroalgae. The present study compared the elemental compositions (CHNS), fatty acid profiles, and lipidomes of S. latissima originating from three distinct locations (France, Norway, and the United Kingdom). Significant differences were found in the elemental composition, with Norwegian samples displaying twice the lipid content of the others, and significantly less protein (2.6%, while French and UK samples contained 6.3% and 9.1%, respectively). The fatty acid profiles also differed considerably, with UK samples displaying a lower content of n-3 fatty acids (21.6%), resulting in a higher n-6/n-3 ratio. Regarding the lipidomic profile, samples from France were enriched in lyso lipids, while those from Norway displayed a particular signature of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylcholine. Samples from the UK featured higher levels of phosphatidylethanolamine and, in general, a lower content of galactolipids. These differences highlight the influence of site-specific environmental conditions in the shaping of macroalgae biochemical phenotypes and nutritional value. It is also important to highlight that differences recorded in the lipidome of S. latissima make it possible to pinpoint specific lipid species that are likely to represent origin biomarkers. This finding is relevant for future applications in the field of geographic origin traceability and food control. View Full-Text
Keywords: elemental composition; glycolipids; lipidomics; mass spectrometry; phospholipids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; seaweeds; traceability elemental composition; glycolipids; lipidomics; mass spectrometry; phospholipids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; seaweeds; traceability
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Monteiro, J.P.; Rey, F.; Melo, T.; Moreira, A.S.P.; Arbona, J.-F.; Skjermo, J.; Forbord, S.; Funderud, J.; Raposo, D.; Kerrison, P.D.; Perrineau, M.-M.; Gachon, C.; Domingues, P.; Calado, R.; Domingues, M.R. The Unique Lipidomic Signatures of Saccharina latissima Can Be Used to Pinpoint Their Geographic Origin. Biomolecules 2020, 10, 107.

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