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Anthropic Selection of Physical Constants, Quantum Entanglement, and the Multiverse Falsifiability
Open AccessArticle

Multiverse Predictions for Habitability: Fraction of Life That Develops Intelligence

1
Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
2
Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Universe 2019, 5(7), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe5070175
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Multiverse)
Do mass extinctions affect the development of intelligence? If so, we may expect to be in a universe that is exceptionally placid. We consider the effects of impacts, supervolcanoes, global glaciations, and nearby gamma ray bursts, and how their rates depend on fundamental constants. It is interesting that despite the very disparate nature of these processes, each occurs on timescales of 100 Myr-Gyr. We argue that this is due to a selection effect that favors both tranquil locales within our universe, as well as tranquil universes. Taking gamma ray bursts to be the sole driver of mass extinctions is disfavored in multiverse scenarios, as the rate is much lower for different values of the fundamental constants. In contrast, geological causes of extinction are very compatible with the multiverse. Various frameworks for the effects of extinctions are investigated, and the intermediate disturbance hypothesis is found to be most compatible with the multiverse. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiverse; habitability; mass extinctions multiverse; habitability; mass extinctions
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Sandora, M. Multiverse Predictions for Habitability: Fraction of Life That Develops Intelligence. Universe 2019, 5, 175.

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