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Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Analysis for the Diagnosis of Cancer: A Systematic Literature Review and Quality Assessment

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, St Mary’s Hospital, London W2 1NY, UK
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Metabolites 2021, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11010017
Received: 16 November 2020 / Revised: 14 December 2020 / Accepted: 24 December 2020 / Published: 29 December 2020
The analysis of urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a promising field of research with the potential to discover new biomarkers for cancer early detection. This systematic review aims to summarise the published literature concerning cancer-associated urinary VOCs. A systematic online literature search was conducted to identify studies reporting urinary VOC biomarkers of cancers in accordance with the recommendations of the Cochrane Library and Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Thirteen studies comprising 1266 participants in total were included in the review. Studies reported urinary VOC profiles of five cancer subtypes: prostate cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, leukaemia/lymphoma, lung cancer, and bladder cancer. Forty-eight urinary VOCs belonging to eleven chemical classes were identified with high diagnostic performance. VOC profiles were distinctive for each cancer type with limited cross-over. The metabolic analysis suggested distinctive phenotypes for prostate and gastrointestinal cancers. The heterogenicity of study design, methodological and reporting quality may have contributed to inconsistencies between studies. Urinary VOC analysis has shown promising performance for non-invasive diagnosis of cancer. However, limitations in study design have resulted in inconsistencies between studies. These limitations are summarised and discussed in order to support future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: volatile organic compounds; urine; cancer early detection; mass spectrometry volatile organic compounds; urine; cancer early detection; mass spectrometry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wen, Q.; Boshier, P.; Myridakis, A.; Belluomo, I.; Hanna, G.B. Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Analysis for the Diagnosis of Cancer: A Systematic Literature Review and Quality Assessment. Metabolites 2021, 11, 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11010017

AMA Style

Wen Q, Boshier P, Myridakis A, Belluomo I, Hanna GB. Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Analysis for the Diagnosis of Cancer: A Systematic Literature Review and Quality Assessment. Metabolites. 2021; 11(1):17. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11010017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wen, Qing, Piers Boshier, Antonis Myridakis, Ilaria Belluomo, and George B. Hanna 2021. "Urinary Volatile Organic Compound Analysis for the Diagnosis of Cancer: A Systematic Literature Review and Quality Assessment" Metabolites 11, no. 1: 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11010017

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