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J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex., Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 34 articles

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Open AccessArticle
The Balance between Work and Life for Subjective Well-Being: A Moderated Mediation Model
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040127 (registering DOI) - 25 Oct 2020
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the association among work-life balance, intrinsic motivation, subjective well-being and job satisfaction among the healthcare professionals of Pakistan. Utilizing a sample of 301 Health Care Professionals, the authors tested the proposed relationships. Findings were constant [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the association among work-life balance, intrinsic motivation, subjective well-being and job satisfaction among the healthcare professionals of Pakistan. Utilizing a sample of 301 Health Care Professionals, the authors tested the proposed relationships. Findings were constant with the hypothesized theoretical scheme, and mediated association between work-life balance and subjective well-being through job satisfaction was stronger when intrinsic motivation was high rather than low. Based on the findings, we suggest that the association between work-life balance and subjective well-being in Health Care Professionals is more complicated than was previously believed—thus yielding a pattern of moderated mediation. In brief, it was found that work-life balance enhances subjective well-being through job satisfaction when intrinsic motivation is low. We also discuss the theoretical contributions and practical implications of the research and directions for future studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Corporate Social Responsibility during COVID-19 Pandemic
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040126 (registering DOI) - 24 Oct 2020
Viewed by 192
Abstract
The health, economic, and social consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have highlighted the need for collaboration among all agents to face a scenario that we have not before seen. The aims of this paper are to analyze the involvement that large Spanish companies [...] Read more.
The health, economic, and social consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have highlighted the need for collaboration among all agents to face a scenario that we have not before seen. The aims of this paper are to analyze the involvement that large Spanish companies have shown during the toughest moments of the epidemic and to determine the objectives these companies have pursued with them. The results show that several firms have shown a great commitment with society, developing actions that alleviate the consequences of the COVID-19 like others have developed several strategies with different objectives. More concretely, three clusters of responsibility have been identified: (i) protecting only the interests of shareholders and investors; (ii) favoring the wellbeing of the Spanish society in general and vulnerable groups in particular; and (iii) combining the previous altruistic actions with commercial interests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambidextrous Open Innovation: Technology, Market and Complexity)
Open AccessArticle
Configuring the Evolving Role of eWOM on the Consumers Information Adoption
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040125 (registering DOI) - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) is reckoned to be one of the underlying factors that augments online retailing. The information adoption protocols have been revamped due to the extensive online information; consequently, adding a significant influence on the online purchase behaviors. Consumer review websites, shopping [...] Read more.
Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) is reckoned to be one of the underlying factors that augments online retailing. The information adoption protocols have been revamped due to the extensive online information; consequently, adding a significant influence on the online purchase behaviors. Consumer review websites, shopping platforms, blogs and discussion forums are some of the leading eWOM platforms, as emphasized in prior literature. The current study, however, focuses on eWOM on the social media platforms, as the consumers’ online decision-making process is confined to the adoption of information in the first phase. The study examines the effects of the antecedents of eWOM and multiple mediators (i.e. perceived risk, argument quality, information usefulness and trust inclination) on the consumers information adoption. The study used survey-based data and structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to determine the causality among the constructs. Future directions provide concrete managerial and theoretical implications as highlighted in the study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Economics of Digital Ecosystems
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040124 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 189
Abstract
This paper examines a new approach to defining digital ecosystems. Within the digital economy of ecosystems, competition is eliminated, and organizations form unions and alliances in order to work together and cooperate to reach a set goal. This means a digital ecosystem can [...] Read more.
This paper examines a new approach to defining digital ecosystems. Within the digital economy of ecosystems, competition is eliminated, and organizations form unions and alliances in order to work together and cooperate to reach a set goal. This means a digital ecosystem can be viewed as a complex environment in which organizations without any hard ties operate. Digital ecosystems differ from traditional ecosystems in many ways. The business organization of the latter is based on management decision making by people. This paper presents theoretical foundations for developing digital ecosystems based on a literary review. Based on the logic of scientific search using the keywords “ecosystem” and “biological ecosystem”, the commonality of the properties of the digital ecosystem and the biological ecosystem is shown. The aim of the study is to identify common characteristics in biological, economic and digital ecosystems in order to substantiate the possibility of using the same approaches for research and modeling of such systems. A definition of a digital ecosystem is proposed by the authors which points out the main features of this kind of system and highlights the dominant role of modern digital technologies in the formation of the digital ecosystem. The paper looks at the distinctive features of digital ecosystems and characteristics similar to the characteristics of biological ecosystems, such as ecosystem participants, presence of limiting impacts, lack of vertical hierarchical communication. The developed model can be used to model digital ecosystems. The authors believe that the emergence of a trend in the transformation of ecosystems in the direction of expanding the collaboration of economic agents is reasonable. At the same time, digitalization helps to replace competition with collaboration. The paper finishes with a discussion of the obtained results and a plan for further research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Innovations in Education—The Development of a New Pedagogical Technology of a Combinational Type, Focused on the Development of Personality of Students
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040123 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 208
Abstract
The paper considers the problem of adolescent and young students’ personalities’ development in the conditions of face-to-face and distance school learning. The scientific novelty of the study is the proposed classification of pedagogical technologies according to the degree of their novelty: modernized technology, [...] Read more.
The paper considers the problem of adolescent and young students’ personalities’ development in the conditions of face-to-face and distance school learning. The scientific novelty of the study is the proposed classification of pedagogical technologies according to the degree of their novelty: modernized technology, combinational technology, progressive technology, pedagogical technology of the combinational type, the essence of which is shown in its title. A specific model of pedagogical technology of the combinational type “Teaching in cooperation, in a team using flipped classroom” was developed. The developed technology was implemented during the classes of the humanities and natural-mathematical cycles. Nine hundred and eight adolescent and young students (divided into experimental and control groups) and 32 teachers participated in the experimental work. To analyze the differences between the experimental and control groups in terms of the student’s personality manifestation, several criteria and indicators were considered. For mathematical and statistical processing of the obtained results, the multifunctional statistical Fisher’s F-test was used. Analysis of the implementation of the developed technology in the conditions of face-to-face and distance learning showed a positive dynamics of experience formation of the student’s personality manifestation. This allowed the authors to consider the developed pedagogical means effective. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Access to the Rail Station as a Customer Value: Simulation of Passenger Flows in Rail Stations with Disinfection Gateway Installations
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040122 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 244
Abstract
This research applied secondary data collection methods to predict passenger flows, which involved analyzing traffic flows at rail stations and statistical methods, which involved assessing the relationship between variables and regression. Observation methods were used to measure current passenger flows at the rail [...] Read more.
This research applied secondary data collection methods to predict passenger flows, which involved analyzing traffic flows at rail stations and statistical methods, which involved assessing the relationship between variables and regression. Observation methods were used to measure current passenger flows at the rail station entrances. Passengers’ safety perception was assessed to understand the customer value of transport services. This assessment was based on an online survey, an analysis of official requests from passengers to the station directorates, and feedback from passengers and station visitors posted on the Internet. Traditional and content analysis methods were used to study passengers’ requests and feedbacks. It was substantiated that due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the concept of transportation security and the role of health safety as a customer value in passenger service have become more prominent. The possibility for passenger flow simulation to ensure people’s safe passage through a disinfection gateway is clearly shown. Public space management structures in transportation hubs can use the simulation results of this paper to solve the problem of passenger flow control along with installation of disinfection gateways at the station entrances for additional security. This is one of the few studies that explores the impact of using disinfection gateways to manage passenger flows in train stations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Strategic Conformity Interacts with Innovation: An Empirical Study on Korean Manufacturing Firms from the Perspective of Optimal Distinctiveness
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040121 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 131
Abstract
Whether to have a similar or different strategy than firms in same industry is the fundamental question for firms that want to build a competitive advantage. Recent literature, such as the new institutional theory and the perspective of optimal distinctiveness, has emphasized the [...] Read more.
Whether to have a similar or different strategy than firms in same industry is the fundamental question for firms that want to build a competitive advantage. Recent literature, such as the new institutional theory and the perspective of optimal distinctiveness, has emphasized the configuration of competing forces that make firms simultaneously similar by conforming to industry norms and different by implementing innovation, leading to high performance. The primary rationale is that firms can exploit their high status of conformity as a stock of capital to differentiate themselves when required. Upon this rationale, we conducted research to test the hypotheses for optimal distinctiveness in the strategies of manufacturing firms in Korea. The results show that Korean firms have higher performance when they are mutually involved in higher conformity and innovation. It also suggests that firms in the industry with high volatility have difficulties in managing optimal distinctiveness of strategic conformity with innovation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Social Enterprises, Job Creation, and Social Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040120 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 204
Abstract
How can social problems be solved? The complicated and rapidly changing problems of modern society require all the actors of the economy to create social values to solve problems. Social enterprises create social value in the field of business and solve many social [...] Read more.
How can social problems be solved? The complicated and rapidly changing problems of modern society require all the actors of the economy to create social values to solve problems. Social enterprises create social value in the field of business and solve many social problems through employment. The increasing number of diverse social problems has stimulated interest in social enterprises. This study identifies employment in social enterprises in terms of its quantity and quality. The human resources required for social enterprises must be unique and valuable, but many social enterprises fail to utilize human resources by maintaining contractual and short-term employment relationships even though long-term and continuing employment relationships are valuable. Therefore, this study identifies the economic value created by social enterprises as a basis for the creation of high-quality jobs and confirms the role that government grants and return on assets play in that relationship. As a result of panel analysis of social enterprises, the direct effect of net income on the quantity of employment and its indirect effect on the quality of employment were confirmed. Additionally, in companies receiving significant government grants, the relationship between net income and the quantity of employment is found to be strong, and the return on assets found to strengthen the indirect effects of net income on the quality of employment. This study has academic and practical implications for social enterprises through its review of theory and empirical analysis. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Economic, Non-Economic and Critical Factors for the Sustainability of Family Firms
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040119 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Family firms make a significant contribution to wealth creation. Despite the proliferation of large corporations, the model remains in place. The peculiarities of the company-family relationship mean that these organizations are managed in a particular way and differently from those with a non-family [...] Read more.
Family firms make a significant contribution to wealth creation. Despite the proliferation of large corporations, the model remains in place. The peculiarities of the company-family relationship mean that these organizations are managed in a particular way and differently from those with a non-family composition. In recent decades, the literature on family firms has been considerable, but research related to the sustainability of this type of business is in the development phase and shows little maturity. This paper analyses the content of publications that set the trend in research on the sustainability of family firms. Bibliometric techniques are used to obtain the sample (135 docs.) of journals indexed in Web of Science (WoS) between the dates 2003 and 2019. The results suggest that the interest in sustainability in family firms is still relatively recent, barely a decade old. The most central theme has been Socioemotional-Wealth. The analysis of content points mainly to the process of intergenerational succession as a critical factor. As non-economic aspects, those that promote sustainability through the effects of emotional wealth, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Human Resources practices stand out. Finally, the economic aspects that would affect sustainability are related to performance and have to do with the change of organizational culture adapted to business orientation, intergenerational knowledge transfer, investment in innovation, or internationalization strategies. This work sheds light on what aspects are being researched in relation to sustainability in family firms and can serve as guidance for future work in this field of research, as well as for managers in the decision-making process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Relation between Russian Universities and Regional Innovation Development
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040118 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 229
Abstract
The innovation economy is the main direction for Russian’s regional development. It is important to understand organizations that utilize new technologies will determine the significance of innovations. Innovation is changing under the influence of society—the basis for the development of the society is [...] Read more.
The innovation economy is the main direction for Russian’s regional development. It is important to understand organizations that utilize new technologies will determine the significance of innovations. Innovation is changing under the influence of society—the basis for the development of the society is knowledge transfer, and this is one of the most important tasks of the higher education system. In this regard, universities can be considered a factor in innovative development. In this article, the authors hypothesize a link between regional and university indicators. We assume that universities, as part of the regional innovation system, affects the effectiveness of this system. We believe that it is necessary to single out a system of indicators that can be used for analysis, which allows us to determine the efficiency of the region in terms of contribution of universities to its development—because, at the moment, there is no official methodology. The purpose of this study is to determine which indicators are significant for assessing the efficiency of the region, taking into account the activities of university complexes. We will evaluate the efficiency of regional innovation in the region using a data envelopment analysis (DEA). The research objects, or decision-making units (DMU), will be represented by 85 regions of the Russian Federation. A complex of universities operates in each region, and there is a list of socio-economic statistical indicators based on their performance over the past years. There are similar statistical results on the innovative activity of the regions. Thus, we will use the indicators of the complex of universities in the region as initial resources for analysis (2011), as well as indicators of the innovative development of the region as a result of the introduced resources (2018). A time lag of six years is justified by the end of the crisis, and the many factors affecting the activities of universities and regions. For example, increased funding for scientific activities of universities encourages small innovative enterprises within universities. As a result, we were able to identify the level of efficiency, and identify factors that are of greater importance in the resulting model. The findings of the study highlight the importance of educational organizations in the regional innovation system, and encourages alternative interactions between universities and the region, such as joint research and development, training of qualified personnel, and other channels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Blockchain Adoption in Academia: Promises and Challenges
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040117 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Blockchain has received considerable attention recently, due to its promises of verifiable, permanent, and decentralized data handling. In 2017–2020, blockchain (and associated technologies such as smart contracts) has progressed beyond cryptocurrencies, and has been hailed as a disruptive technology for a score of [...] Read more.
Blockchain has received considerable attention recently, due to its promises of verifiable, permanent, and decentralized data handling. In 2017–2020, blockchain (and associated technologies such as smart contracts) has progressed beyond cryptocurrencies, and has been hailed as a disruptive technology for a score of industries. This study adds to the growing body of research on blockchain adoption and blockchain-driven innovation in various fields, including transport, finance, and education. However, the impact of distributed ledger technologies (DLT) on the management of science has not been systematically studied so far. This paper aims to fill the gap by studying the experience of adoption of blockchain-based solutions in academia in 2017–2020. The research is based upon a critical review of projects, relevant literature, and qualitative research: interviews (N = 24) and focus groups (N = 4) with startup founders, scholars, university executives, librarians, and IT experts from the European Union (EU), the United States of America (USA), Russia, and Belarus. Key challenges and barriers to blockchain adoption in academia are delineated: usability and security issues, legal concerns, conflict of values, and a critique of political dimensions of blockchain governance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
R&D Collaboration, Competitiveness Development, and Open Innovation in R&D
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040116 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 253
Abstract
The competitiveness of the agro-industrial sector depends not only on its specific performance but also on the character and degree of the innovation performance, vital to added value development and differentiation in the biobased value-chain. This work intends to show, how through research [...] Read more.
The competitiveness of the agro-industrial sector depends not only on its specific performance but also on the character and degree of the innovation performance, vital to added value development and differentiation in the biobased value-chain. This work intends to show, how through research and development (R&D), collaboration is possible to improve agri-food companies’ competitiveness, helping them to integrate biotechnology and offer innovative products. The method used to support the R&D collaboration model developed involves a diagnosis of biotechnological tools use, for developing appropriate solutions from food safety to food quality, improving health, and achieving new ingredients and/or food products within an agri-food Association partners survey results were integrated into the study of R&D collaboration practice. Results show that the companies (wine culture, fruticulture, and olive culture subsectors) inquired do not develop biotechnology research. They were all micro-business with a low volume of commercial billing, and only 27.3% claimed to have developed research activities in partnership with external research centres, but were not associated with higher education institutions. The barriers to the implementation of biotechnology techniques considered more relevant by respondents were access to capital and specialized human resources, which led to reinforcing the R&D collaboration strategy design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Open Innovation in Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises)
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Innovation Hubs as a Tool for Boosting Biomass Valorisation in Regional Bioeconomies: Andalusian and South-East Irish Case Studies
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040115 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Regional bioeconomy development is directly linked to the availability and access to bioresources. Therefore, it is necessary to trigger opportunities for information and communications technologies (ICTs), the Internet of things (IoT) and Industry 4.0 solutions to increase the efficiency of high potential value [...] Read more.
Regional bioeconomy development is directly linked to the availability and access to bioresources. Therefore, it is necessary to trigger opportunities for information and communications technologies (ICTs), the Internet of things (IoT) and Industry 4.0 solutions to increase the efficiency of high potential value biomass supply chains, improving this way the accessibility of bioresources. This study aims to present the results achieved through the development of Digital Innovation Hubs (DIHs) as a tool able to boost biomass valorisation, reshaping regional bioeconomy. The objective was to shape these DIHs and assess how stakeholders could be engaged and benefit from such initiatives. This has been attained through the design and implementation of DIHs in two case-study regions, Andalusia (Spain) and south-east Ireland (Ireland). The approaches and results for stakeholders’ engagement, barrier mitigation, DIH structure and activities are presented. So far, more than 100 stakeholders have been engaged, more than 50 business opportunities have been promoted and a set of support services and events have been carried out. Main lessons learned are (1) about the relevance of understanding the needs of stakeholders, (2) impact is bigger when relevant regional industries (rather than academia/technology providers) discuss the technologies they have integrated and how these have improved efficiency or added value to their processes, and (3) about the importance of the communication plan and a well-formed DIH service definition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambidextrous Open Innovation: Technology, Market and Complexity)
Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of the Implementation of Business Process Re-engineering in Public Services
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040114 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Sri Lankan public service apparatus has a long colonial heritage, and all of that has not been in line with the requirements of a 21st century public service expectations. However, the increasing societal pressure for the delivery of more modern public services has [...] Read more.
Sri Lankan public service apparatus has a long colonial heritage, and all of that has not been in line with the requirements of a 21st century public service expectations. However, the increasing societal pressure for the delivery of more modern public services has forced it to undergo a major overhaul of its business process. In this paper, we assess the impact of the recent efforts at business process reengineering (BPR) in public service. We estimate the overall as well as relative efficiency of public service delivery across various ministries and departments of the Sri Lankan government. A broad-based Likert scale field survey on a five-point scale was carried out and performance data were collected. We applied a non-parametric data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate the overall and relative efficiency of the public service delivery across 29 departments and ministries (D&Ms) and the departments of the government of Sri Lanka. Our results show that, save for a few, most D&Ms have a potential for improving the performance. The performance enhancement is desirable both from an input as well as output perspectives. Moreover, our results indicate significant scale inefficiencies associated with the performance of ministries and departments that are engaged in public service delivery (PSD) in the country. The authors have also indicated towards critical success factors for a wider deployment of the study’s findings in the conclusion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Internal and External Coordinated Open Innovation Ecosystems: Concept Building and Applying to Shanghai Zizhu International Education Park
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040113 - 13 Oct 2020
Viewed by 200
Abstract
In an environment marked with phenomena such as globalization and creation, open innovation is critical for universities to cooperate with external resources and meet the requirements of the era. To investigate open innovation ecosystem of higher education, we use secondary data and interviews [...] Read more.
In an environment marked with phenomena such as globalization and creation, open innovation is critical for universities to cooperate with external resources and meet the requirements of the era. To investigate open innovation ecosystem of higher education, we use secondary data and interviews to analysis interactive model of Zizhu International Education Park from both internal and external perspectives. The analysis result suggests that the open innovation ecosystem could have positive effects on the development of higher education. It can contribute to deepening the integration of production, teaching, and research; improve the efficiency of scientific research transformation; and use this part of the income to supplement school funding. While the university–industry collaborative relationship could also be a limiting factor for it. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Analysis of Municipal Public Innovation: Evidence from Romania and United States
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040112 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 319
Abstract
This paper aims to investigate innovation capacity mechanisms at a municipal level, through a comparative case study of public sector innovation labs from Boston (US) and Cluj-Napoca (Romania). We employed a qualitative approach, using as a primary tool the OECD framework for assessing [...] Read more.
This paper aims to investigate innovation capacity mechanisms at a municipal level, through a comparative case study of public sector innovation labs from Boston (US) and Cluj-Napoca (Romania). We employed a qualitative approach, using as a primary tool the OECD framework for assessing the capacity of cities to innovate, and secondarily, a taxonomy of behavioral change strategies. We showed that, despite differences rooted in culture and institutions, innovation labs support the determinants of urban innovation capacity. However, the intensity of their support varies significantly, depending on organizational arrangements and the chosen methodological approach. Accepting this limitation may be an important step in re-configurating innovation labs and in moving towards a clearer agenda on sustainable urban innovation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dynamics of Trust in Institutions, the Legitimacy of the Social Order, and Social Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040111 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 251
Abstract
This article analyses the dynamics of trust in institutions, which underpin the legitimacy of social order, on the basis of a study of the developed Arctic region during the period 2006–2018. The authors considered the principal theoretical concepts on which the study of [...] Read more.
This article analyses the dynamics of trust in institutions, which underpin the legitimacy of social order, on the basis of a study of the developed Arctic region during the period 2006–2018. The authors considered the principal theoretical concepts on which the study of trust, the well-being of citizens, the assessment of security and compliance with the fundamental rights and freedoms of citizens is to be based. It is assumed that the legitimacy of the social order consists in a state where people not only trust specific institutions, but also enjoy a sense of security from threats and the ability to exercise basic rights and freedoms in the presence of a competent authority to protect them in case of violations. The dynamics of the security of the inhabitants of the region, associated with an increase in the level of their well-being, are considered. The structure for retaining the legitimacy of the social order is demonstrated on the basis of a number of indices and model calculations. Configuration analysis was carried out to support the construction of multidimensional models. It was concluded that there has been a dramatic collapse in the social activity of the inhabitants of the Arctic region bordering on social apathy. It is shown that, during the period under study, trust in local authorities significantly declined, while the importance attributed to respecting private property rights increased. Trust in social institutions is shown to be significantly lower than trust in government institutions, contradicting the situation in developed countries. It is recommended that more attention be paid to the functioning of local and municipal authorities governing the Arctic region, who are much more aware of the needs of the inhabitants since they are connected by much denser social ties. The authors substantiate the need to introduce social innovation that allows to diversify communication channels between the government and the public, meet unsatisfied social needs that are not solved by existing institutions and contribute to building trust between different participants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Development of Scientific Activity in Russian Universities
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040110 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
The aim of this article was to develop scientific activity in Russian universities. Using the survey method, a sample of quantitative indicators of research output for the years 2011–2019 was formed. The respondents were comprised of 934 lecturers from 13 universities in Russia [...] Read more.
The aim of this article was to develop scientific activity in Russian universities. Using the survey method, a sample of quantitative indicators of research output for the years 2011–2019 was formed. The respondents were comprised of 934 lecturers from 13 universities in Russia with different work experience, academic degrees, and indicators of scientific activity. The main components method was used to study the structure of scientific activity productivity indicators. Using the method of additive convolution, a five-factor integral model of the structure of scientific activity of a teacher was formed to evaluate the individual and collective productivity of scientific activity. The factor values and the integral indicator of scientific activity output were calculated, showing that the individual growth rates of the young lecturers’ output exceeded the growth rates of the older lecturers. Destructive factors relating to the scientific activity output of the lecturers and researchers in Russian universities (divided into two groups of young scientists and senior scientists) were determined and systematized based on the level of dominant influence. The features of the influence of the factor of emotional burnout on the scientific productivity of university teachers were revealed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Development of an Interaction Mechanism Between Universities and Other Innovation System Actors: Its Influence on University Innovation Activity Effectiveness
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040109 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 276
Abstract
The innovative economy is based on effective interaction between the scientific and educational sphere and the business environment, free flow of innovative ideas, and active commercialization of developments in order to constantly update and develop the domestic economy through new technologies. At the [...] Read more.
The innovative economy is based on effective interaction between the scientific and educational sphere and the business environment, free flow of innovative ideas, and active commercialization of developments in order to constantly update and develop the domestic economy through new technologies. At the moment, a model of effective interaction between universities, business structures, and government in Russia has not been built. This research is aimed to develop a mechanism for multilateral interaction between universities and other participants in the innovation system, which ensures the activation of scientific and innovative activities, acceleration of the transfer process, and effective commercialization of innovative ideas. Methods. To evaluate the effectiveness of the offered interaction mechanism based on the open innovation platform we conducted a complex multi-criteria assessment of forecast indicators of a university’s innovation activity effectiveness. We conducted two online surveys. Heads of scientific laboratories at the university (N = 4) and representatives of business (N = 3) acted as experts. The first survey was intended to indicate the weight of innovation activity indicators reflecting the significance of these indicators in the framework of innovation development. In the second survey, experts defined the forecast indicators of the university’s innovation activity after implementation of the proposed interaction mechanism. Results. The conducted study revealed the importance of enhancing cooperation between universities and other innovation system actors for achieving higher results of innovation activity. The calculation of the effectiveness of the offered interaction mechanism showed positive influence on the university’s innovation activity indicators. Thus, the mechanism can be used by multidisciplinary universities to increase their innovation activity indicators as well as the potential of all interacting entities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Relationship between Customer Loyalty and Financial Performance of Banks: Customer Open Innovation Perspective
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040108 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 786
Abstract
In the age of technology, continuous innovation is the ultimate motto of the financial sector to attract customers. Firms in the financial sector must be innovative in terms of service quality and operational performance to obtain customer loyalty and gain financial stability. A [...] Read more.
In the age of technology, continuous innovation is the ultimate motto of the financial sector to attract customers. Firms in the financial sector must be innovative in terms of service quality and operational performance to obtain customer loyalty and gain financial stability. A dearth of studies on customer loyalty and financial performance of Islamic Banks motivated the authors to examine the relationship between customer loyalty and financial performance. The study also explores whether the service qualities have any impact on customer loyalty. The study uses both primary and secondary data to conclude the research objectives. A survey of 356 questionnaires was carried out among the customers of the selected Islamic banks of Bangladesh to gather information regarding customer service quality and customer loyalty, while financial performance data were attained from the annual reports. Moreover, the study follows the SERVQUAL model’s five dimensions (tangibles, empathy, assurance, reliability, and responsiveness) to determine the service quality of Bangladeshi Islamic Banks. Rigorous statistical techniques, including exploratory factor analysis, reliability testing, and regression analysis were used to investigate the hypothesis. The study empirically documents a positively significant impact of service quality (tangibles, empathy, reliability, and responsiveness) on customer loyalty, while assurance shows an insignificant relationship. Furthermore, the study does not find any significant relationship between customer loyalty and the financial performance of Bangladeshi Islamic Banks. The findings of the study profoundly denote that the financial performance of Bangladeshi Islamic Banks mostly depends on many other financial and non-financial factors, rather than customer loyalty. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of the Adoption of Green Fashion Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040107 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Environmental pollution from garment manufacturing is a major concern due to its widely-felt impact on climate change. Consequently, the researchers set about assessing KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) and its relationship with, and impact on, green fashion innovation adoption among Jordanian companies. This [...] Read more.
Environmental pollution from garment manufacturing is a major concern due to its widely-felt impact on climate change. Consequently, the researchers set about assessing KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) and its relationship with, and impact on, green fashion innovation adoption among Jordanian companies. This work examined the relationship between the independent variables, represented by KAP, and the dependent variable, which was Green Fashion Innovation Adoption in Jordan. A quantitative approach utilized a cross-sectional survey to gather primary data from upper and middle-level management in Jordanian garment companies. The sample size was 257 valid questionnaires. The results showed a statistically significant impact of knowledge and attitude toward green fashion innovation adoption, but failed to identify a statistically significant impact of practice on the same. This research contributes positively to the diffusion of awareness about going green in innovative methods and systems in Jordan’s garment industry, and provides suggestions to practitioners. Full article
Open AccessReview
Individual Predictors of Autonomous Vehicle Public Acceptance and Intention to Use: A Systematic Review of the Literature
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040106 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Fully autonomous vehicles (AV) would potentially be one of the most disruptive technologies of our time. The extent of the prospective benefits of AVs is strongly linked to how widely they will be accepted and adopted. Monitoring and tracking of individuals’ reactions and [...] Read more.
Fully autonomous vehicles (AV) would potentially be one of the most disruptive technologies of our time. The extent of the prospective benefits of AVs is strongly linked to how widely they will be accepted and adopted. Monitoring and tracking of individuals’ reactions and intentions to use AVs are critical. The current study aims to explore and classify individual predictors (i.e., influential factors or determinants) of public acceptance of, and intention to use AVs, by conducting a systematic literature review and developing a conceptual framework to map out the individual influential factors that shape public attitudes towards AVs, which influence user acceptance and adoption preferences. This framework contains the key factors identified in the systematic review—i.e., demographic, psychological, and mobility behavior characteristics. The findings of the review disclose that public perceptions and adoption intentions vary significantly among different socio-demographic cohorts. Commuters value different aspects concerning AVs, which shape their intentions on acceptance and adoption. Thus, direct experience with AVs along with education and communication would be helpful to change people’s attitudes towards AVs in a positive way. The study informs urban and transport policymakers, managers, and planners, and helps in planning for a healthy AV adoption process with minimal societal disruption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Consequences of Indirect Taxation on Consumption in Nigeria
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040105 - 07 Oct 2020
Viewed by 181
Abstract
This research tests the consequences of Nigeria’s indirect taxes on consumption. There are two reasons why the government imposes taxes on goods and services in Nigeria. The primary purpose is to produce income for the smooth running of the administration. Another silent reason [...] Read more.
This research tests the consequences of Nigeria’s indirect taxes on consumption. There are two reasons why the government imposes taxes on goods and services in Nigeria. The primary purpose is to produce income for the smooth running of the administration. Another silent reason is to discourage the ingestion of prohibited products and services, and that is through customs and excise duties (CED). This study assesses both Value Added Tax (VAT) and CED to determine their effects on consumption using various econometric tools, such as trend analysis, pairwise Granger causality tests, unrestricted co-integration rank test, least squares technique, and data that cover the period from 2005 to 2019. The results indicate that VAT insignificantly but positively influences consumption, while CED has a considerable auspicious influence on use. This result shows that VAT imposition on merchandises and services is discouraging the absorption of specific foodstuffs and services and allowing the operation of informal economic activities to thrive in Nigeria. However, CED charges do not reduce the use of certain illegal products purposely taxed to discourage their consumption. This study recommends a reduction in the prices of food items and services to enable consumers to increase their patronage, while the products that attract CED but are harmful should be banned entirely. Thus, offenders should be allowed to face the wrath of the law. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Digital Transformation Paths in the Business Model of SMEs during the COVID-19 Pandemic
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040104 - 03 Oct 2020
Viewed by 738
Abstract
The objective of this study was to analyze how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) cope with environmental changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic by pursuing the business model transformation with the support of digital technologies. To achieve the objective, this study used a [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to analyze how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) cope with environmental changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic by pursuing the business model transformation with the support of digital technologies. To achieve the objective, this study used a multiple case study design with qualitative analysis to examine the data obtained from interviews, observation, and field visits. Seven manufacturing SMEs from Indonesia were selected using a theoretical sampling technique, with the purpose of achieving some degree of variation to allow us to undertake replication logic. Our analysis demonstrates that SMEs adopt a different degree of digital transformations, which can be summarized into three paths, depending on the firms’ contextual factors. First, SMEs with a high level of digital maturity who respond to the challenges by accelerating the transition toward digitalized firms; second, SMEs experiencing liquidity issues but a low level of digital maturity who decide to digitalize the sales function only; and, third, the SMEs that have very limited digital literacy but are supported by a high level of social capital. This last group of firms solves the challenges by finding partners who possess excellent digital capabilities. The qualitative case study method allows us to conduct in-depth and detailed analysis, but has thin generalizability. To address this limitation, future research can use a survey covering various industries to test the proposed theory that has resulted from this study, so that the generalizability can be assured. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Natural and Human Resources on Economic Growth and Regional Development: With Discussion of Open Innovation Dynamics
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040103 - 02 Oct 2020
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Regional economic growth is closely related to the optimization of the use of natural and human resources. This study aims to analyze: (1) The use of natural and human resource potential works as a determinant of the economic growth of Bulukumba Regency; (2) [...] Read more.
Regional economic growth is closely related to the optimization of the use of natural and human resources. This study aims to analyze: (1) The use of natural and human resource potential works as a determinant of the economic growth of Bulukumba Regency; (2) The influence of natural resources, human resources, community culture and regulation on economic growth in Bulukumba Regency. The research method used is a combination of mixed models, namely a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Data was obtained through observation, survey and documentation. The results of the study show that optimizing the use of natural resources without human resource development causes its contribution to economic growth in Bulukumba Regency to be quite low which becomes an obstacle to the acceleration of economic development. The influence of natural resources, human resources, and community culture together has a significant effect on economic growth in Bulukumba Regency with a coefficient of determination 47.2%. This study recommends optimizing resource potential and strengthening human resource capacity through the use of technology and changes in community culture, which will encourage economic growth in Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Stock Market Reaction to COVID-19: Evidence in Customer Goods Sector with the Implication for Open Innovation
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040099 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 445
Abstract
The coronavirus pandemic has spread all over the world, affecting both the health and economic sectors. The aim of this research was to observe stock prices of customer goods before and after the COVID-19 pandemic using event study and the comparison test. The [...] Read more.
The coronavirus pandemic has spread all over the world, affecting both the health and economic sectors. The aim of this research was to observe stock prices of customer goods before and after the COVID-19 pandemic using event study and the comparison test. The sample included data of daily closing stock prices and volume of stock trade during the three months before (−90 days) and after (+90 days) the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic ongoing, totaling 2670 observation data both before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, for a total of 5340. The research findings indicate a significant difference between the daily closing stock price and volume of stock trade before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The current research has both theoretical and practical implications: the findings strengthen the efficient market hypothesis, which states that the more complete the provided information, the more efficient the market. The practical implication is that investors should be careful when choosing to invest. Investors should choose customer goods sector companies that provide products that are much needed by customers, for example, pharmacy, food, beverages, etc. Future research is needed to investigate the long-term impact of the pandemic on the economy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Environmental Moisture Conditions on the Calculated Incident Radiant Heat Flux by Plate Thermometers
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040102 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
This study investigates the effect of environmental moisture conditions on the calculated incident radiant heat flux (irradiance) by plate thermometers (PT). Alterations were made to the moisture content of the PT insulation layers to achieve these conditions. Irradiance was calculated using a pre-determined [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effect of environmental moisture conditions on the calculated incident radiant heat flux (irradiance) by plate thermometers (PT). Alterations were made to the moisture content of the PT insulation layers to achieve these conditions. Irradiance was calculated using a pre-determined equation based on fully insulated conditions and validated using a Schmidt-Boelter radiometer. The study consisted of two phases; (i) investigating the effect of preheating PT to the accurate irradiance, (ii) investigating the effect of moisture in the PT on the measurement of irradiance. Calculated irradiance agreed with measured for preheated PT, but not with unheated PT. Four representative moisture conditions were identified for phase two, whereby samples were equilibrated at 0, 45, 65, and 98 wood moisture equivalent (%WME). No noticeable difference identified between measured and calculated irradiance was detected within 0–65%WME. PT with 98%WME showed a difference between the irradiance as the moisture inside the PT insulation absorbed energy from the PT to vaporize. Therefore, using preheated PT with any %WME under 65 is recommended to obtain accurate enough irradiance measurements. The result can use to improve determining the fire spread mechanisms and accurate measurements of irradiance in outdoor fires such as informal settlements fires. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Does Open Innovation Enhance a Large Firm’s Financial Sustainability? A Case of the Korean Food Industry
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040101 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 337
Abstract
This study aims to explore whether a firm’s financial sustainability is enhanced by open innovation especially after a global financial crisis. There are few studies on the relationship between open innovation and financial sustainability. This study aimed to fill the literature gap by [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore whether a firm’s financial sustainability is enhanced by open innovation especially after a global financial crisis. There are few studies on the relationship between open innovation and financial sustainability. This study aimed to fill the literature gap by analyzing the change in the financial ratio according to the increase or decrease in open innovation. We used a case study method regarding large Korean food firms. Korea is a latecomer in the food industry, which is driven by large companies. This study is meaningful for financial sustainability studies of countries with a lack of resources and small market size, which require open innovation. The findings of this study are as follows: The most preferred alliance strategy of large food firms is joint research. In order to secure raw materials and markets, open innovation was actively conducted abroad, which increased growth and profitability. However, a firm which rarely adopts open innovation could grow steadily through internal strategies. On the other hand, although relatively many open innovations have been used, growth and profitability could decrease. Firms with sufficient absorptive capacity strengthen financial sustainability through open innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambidextrous Open Innovation: Technology, Market and Complexity)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Analysis of Corporate R&D Capability and Innovation: Focused on the Korean Manufacturing Industry
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040100 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 293
Abstract
In order to improve innovation performance, it is necessary to analyze a series of processes that are connected to innovation performance, as well as R&D input. Since industrial characteristics affect innovation performance, the differences between corporate R&D capabilities in the industrial sector should [...] Read more.
In order to improve innovation performance, it is necessary to analyze a series of processes that are connected to innovation performance, as well as R&D input. Since industrial characteristics affect innovation performance, the differences between corporate R&D capabilities in the industrial sector should also be considered. This study verified the effect of R&D capabilities and absorptive capacities on innovation using a structural equation model for Korean manufacturing companies, and analyzed in-depth the relationship between capability and performance of high- and low-tech sectors through multi-group analysis. The results show that internal and external R&D capabilities had a positive effect on absorptive capacities, and potential absorptive capability had a positive effect on realized absorptive capacity. In addition, internal R&D capability and realized absorptive capacity had a positive effect on innovation, and the mediating effect of absorption capacities could be identified. As a result of industry sector-specific analysis, the latent mean of internal R&D capability and innovation of the high-tech sector were higher, and the path coefficient of the high-tech sector from the internal R&D capability to potential absorptive capacity and innovation performance was more strongly identified than those of the low-tech sector. Based on the results of this study, we would like to present policies for the development of firm’s R&D capabilities by the industry sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambidextrous Open Innovation: Technology, Market and Complexity)
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Open AccessArticle
Online Discussions as an Intervention for Strengthening Students’ Engagement in General Education
J. Open Innov. Technol. Mark. Complex. 2020, 6(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6040098 - 28 Sep 2020
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Research suggests that students are skeptical about the values of General Education courses. This revelation calls for different strategies to improve students’ engagement in the classes, including the use of online learning platforms. This study documents students’ experiences of the online discussion forum [...] Read more.
Research suggests that students are skeptical about the values of General Education courses. This revelation calls for different strategies to improve students’ engagement in the classes, including the use of online learning platforms. This study documents students’ experiences of the online discussion forum as a tool for strengthening their engagement in the Social Sciences context of General Education. Data collection and analyses were conducted using quantitative and qualitative strategies involving learning analytics and critical incident questionnaire. The findings revealed that the forum aided students’ engagement and learning in the courses, especially when reading and responding to colleagues’ posts and relating topics to their personal experiences. Despite this, the findings showed that students’ engagement was hampered while interfacing with each other on the platform when colleagues repeated ideas, and discussions were inconsistent with their personal experiences. The results suggested that constructive feedback, clear guidelines, and reflective questions can strengthen students’ engagement and learning in online discussions. Based on the findings, implications for practice and stakeholders are discussed. Full article
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