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Open AccessFeature PaperCase Report

Fatal Human Case of Zika and Chikungunya Virus Co-Infection with Prolonged Viremia and Viruria

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Serviço de Reumatologia, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941590, Brazil
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Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941590, Brazil
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Programa de Pós Graduação em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (FM/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941590, Brazil
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Serviço de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941590, Brazil
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Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMPG/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro 21941902, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
K.R.S. and B.E.R.G.B. contributed equally to this manuscript.
Diseases 2018, 6(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases6030053
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 18 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-pathogen Interactions in Ebola, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses)
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection usually presents as a mild and self-limited illness, but it may be associated with severe outcomes. We describe a case of a 30-year-old man with systemic erythematous lupus and common variable immunodeficiency who became infected with both Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus during the 2016 outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The patient presented with intense wrist and right ankle arthritis, and ZIKV RNA and virus particles were detected in synovial tissue, blood and urine, and CHIKV RNA in serum sample, at the time of the diagnosis. During the follow up, ZIKV RNA persisted for 275 days post symptoms onset. The patient evolved with severe arthralgia/arthritis and progressive deterioration of renal function. Fatal outcome occurred after 310 days post ZIKV and CHIKV co-infection onset. The results show the development of severe disease and fatal outcome of ZIKV infection in an immunosuppressed adult. The data suggests a correlation between immunodeficiency and prolonged ZIKV RNA shedding in both blood and urine with progressive disease. The results also indicate a possible role for arbovirus co-infections as risk factors for severe and fatal outcomes from ZIKV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zika virus; Chikungunya virus; co-infection; systemic lupus erythematosus Zika virus; Chikungunya virus; co-infection; systemic lupus erythematosus
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Silva, K.R.; Bica, B.E.R.G.; Pimenta, E.S.; Serafim, R.B.; Abreu, M.M.; Gonçalves, J.L.S.; Santana, L.D.S.; Cabral-Castro, M.J.; Peralta, J.M.; Cavalcanti, M.G. Fatal Human Case of Zika and Chikungunya Virus Co-Infection with Prolonged Viremia and Viruria. Diseases 2018, 6, 53.

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