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Open AccessArticle

Side-Information-Aided Preprocessing Scheme for Deep-Learning Classifier in Fingerprint-Based Indoor Positioning

Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University-Seoul, Seoul 04620, Korea
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Electronics 2020, 9(6), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9060982
Received: 17 April 2020 / Revised: 7 June 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Technologies in Telecommunication)
Deep-learning classifiers can effectively improve the accuracy of fingerprint-based indoor positioning. During fingerprint database construction, all received signal strength indicators from each access point are combined without any distinction. Therefore, the database is created and utilised for deep-learning models. Meanwhile, side information regarding specific conditions may help characterise the data features for the deep-learning classifier and improve the accuracy of indoor positioning. Herein, a side-information-aided preprocessing scheme for deep-learning classifiers is proposed in a dynamic environment, where several groups of different databases are constructed for training multiple classifiers. Therefore, appropriate databases can be employed to effectively improve positioning accuracies. Specifically, two kinds of side information, namely time (morning/afternoon) and direction (forward/backward), are considered when collecting the received signal strength indicator. Simulations and experiments are performed with the deep-learning classifier trained on four different databases. Moreover, these are compared with conventional results from the combined database. The results show that the side-information-aided preprocessing scheme allows better success probability than the conventional method. With two margins, the proposed scheme has 6.55% and 5.8% improved performances for simulations and experiments compared to the conventional scheme. Additionally, the proposed scheme, with time as the side information, obtains a higher success probability when the positioning accuracy requirement is loose with larger margin. With direction as the side information, the proposed scheme shows better performance for high positioning precision requirements. Thus, side information such as time or direction is advantageous for preprocessing data in deep-learning classifiers for fingerprint-based indoor positioning. View Full-Text
Keywords: fingerprint-based indoor positioning; preprocessing; side information; dynamic environment; deep-learning classifier fingerprint-based indoor positioning; preprocessing; side information; dynamic environment; deep-learning classifier
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Liu, Y.; Sinha, R.S.; Liu, S.-Z.; Hwang, S.-H. Side-Information-Aided Preprocessing Scheme for Deep-Learning Classifier in Fingerprint-Based Indoor Positioning. Electronics 2020, 9, 982.

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