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Open AccessArticle

A Closed-Loop Optogenetic Stimulation Device

School of Engineering, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 96;
Received: 20 November 2019 / Revised: 25 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 December 2019 / Published: 3 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Electrical Circuits and Systems for Neural Interface)
Closed-loop optogenetic stimulation devices deliver optical stimulations based on real-time measurement and analysis of neural responses to stimulations. However, the use of large bench-top and tethered devices hinders the naturalistic test environment, which is crucial in pre-clinical neuroscience studies involving small rodent subjects. This paper presents a tetherless, lightweight and miniaturized head-mountable closed-loop optogenetic stimulation device. The device consists of three hardware modules: a hybrid electrode, an action potential detector, and an optogenetic stimulator. In addition, the device includes three software modules: a feature extractor, a control algorithm, and a pulse generator. The details of the design, implementation, and bench-testing of the device are presented. Furthermore, an in vitro test environment is formed using synthetic neural signals, wherein the device is validated for its closed-loop performance. During the in vitro validation, the device was able to identify abnormal neural signals, and trigger optical stimulation. On the other hand, it was able to also distinguish normal neural signals and inhibit optical stimulation. The overall power consumption of the device is 24 mW. The device measures 6 mm in radius and weighs 0.44 g excluding the power source. View Full-Text
Keywords: action potential detector; closed-loop control; deep brain stimulation; hybrid electrode; optogenetic stimulator action potential detector; closed-loop control; deep brain stimulation; hybrid electrode; optogenetic stimulator
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MDPI and ACS Style

Edward, E.S.; Kouzani, A.Z. A Closed-Loop Optogenetic Stimulation Device. Electronics 2020, 9, 96.

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