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Static and Moving Target Imaging Using Harmonic Radar

U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783, USA
Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, The Citadel, Charleston, SC 29409, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicolas H. Younan and John E. Ball
Electronics 2017, 6(2), 30;
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio and Radar Signal Processing)
PDF [4911 KB, uploaded 4 April 2017]


Nonlinear radar exploits the difference in frequency between radar waves that illuminate and are reflected from electromagnetically nonlinear targets. Harmonic radar is a special type of nonlinear radar that transmits one or multiple frequencies and listens for frequencies at or near their harmonics. Nonlinear radar differs from traditional linear radar by offering high clutter rejection and is particularly suited to the detection of devices containing metals and semiconductors. Examples include tags for tracking insects, tags worn by humans for avoiding collisions with vehicles, or for monitoring vital signs. Such tags contain a radio-frequency (RF) nonlinearity, often a Schottky diode, connected to a suitable antenna. Targets with inherent nonlinearities, such as metal contacts, semiconductors, transmission lines, antennas, filters, and ferroelectrics, also respond to nonlinear radar. In this paper, the successful exploitation of harmonic radar for moving target imaging and synthetic aperture imaging of targets, while suppressing clutter signals from linear targets, are presented. Our results demonstrate some unique advantages of harmonic radar over its traditional linear counterpart. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonlinear radar; harmonic radar; moving target imaging; synthetic aperture imaging nonlinear radar; harmonic radar; moving target imaging; synthetic aperture imaging

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gallagher, K.A.; Narayanan, R.M.; Mazzaro, G.J.; Martone, A.F.; Sherbondy, K.D. Static and Moving Target Imaging Using Harmonic Radar. Electronics 2017, 6, 30.

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