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Article

Keyframe Insertion: Enabling Low-Latency Random Access and Packet Loss Repair

1
Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent University—imec—IDLab, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 122, 9052 Gent, Belgium
2
THEO Technologies, Philipssite 5, bus1, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan-Carlos Cano
Electronics 2021, 10(6), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10060748
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 16 March 2021 / Accepted: 17 March 2021 / Published: 22 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Content Delivery over Mobile Networks)
From a video coding perspective, there are two challenges when performing live video distribution over error-prone networks, such as wireless networks: random access and packet loss repair. There is a scarceness of solutions that do not impact steady-state usage and users with reliable connections. The proposed solution minimizes this impact by complementing a compression-efficient video stream with a companion stream solely consisting of keyframes. Although the core idea is not new, this paper is the first work to provide restrictions and modifications necessary to make this idea work using the High-Efficiency Video Coding (H.265/HEVC) compression standard. Additionally, through thorough quantification, insight is provided on how to provide low-latency fast channel switching capabilities and error recovery at low quality impact, i.e., less than 0.94 average Video Multimethod Assessment Fusion (VMAF) score decrease. Finally, worst-case drift artifacts are described and visualized such that the reader gets an overall picture of using the keyframe insertion technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: H.265/HEVC; keyframe insertion; random access; error recovery; packet loss; channel switching H.265/HEVC; keyframe insertion; random access; error recovery; packet loss; channel switching
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MDPI and ACS Style

Van Wallendael, G.; Mareen, H.; Vounckx, J.; Lambert, P. Keyframe Insertion: Enabling Low-Latency Random Access and Packet Loss Repair. Electronics 2021, 10, 748. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10060748

AMA Style

Van Wallendael G, Mareen H, Vounckx J, Lambert P. Keyframe Insertion: Enabling Low-Latency Random Access and Packet Loss Repair. Electronics. 2021; 10(6):748. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10060748

Chicago/Turabian Style

Van Wallendael, Glenn, Hannes Mareen, Johan Vounckx, and Peter Lambert. 2021. "Keyframe Insertion: Enabling Low-Latency Random Access and Packet Loss Repair" Electronics 10, no. 6: 748. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10060748

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