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Article

Visual-Feedback-Based Frame-by-Frame Synchronization for 3000 fps Projector–Camera Visual Light Communication

1
Department of System Cybernetics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 7398527, Japan
2
Digital Monozukuri (Manufacturing) Education Research Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 7390046, Japan
3
Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 7398527, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of our published paper: Sharma, A.; Raut, S.; Shimasaki, K.; Senoo, T.; Ishii, I. HFR Projector Camera Based Visible Light Communication System for Real-Time Video Streaming. Sensors 2020, 20, 5368.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Crupi
Electronics 2021, 10(14), 1631; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10141631
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 28 June 2021 / Accepted: 5 July 2021 / Published: 8 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
This paper proposes a novel method for synchronizing a high frame-rate (HFR) camera with an HFR projector, using a visual feedback-based synchronization algorithm for streaming video sequences in real time on a visible-light communication (VLC)-based system. The frame rates of the camera and projector are equal, and their phases are synchronized. A visual feedback-based synchronization algorithm is used to mitigate the complexities and stabilization issues of wire-based triggering for long-distance systems. The HFR projector projects a binary pattern modulated at 3000 fps. The HFR camera system operates at 3000 fps, which can capture and generate a delay signal to be given to the next camera clock cycle so that it matches the phase of the HFR projector. To test the synchronization performance, we used an HFR projector–camera-based VLC system in which the proposed synchronization algorithm provides maximum bandwidth utilization for the high-throughput transmission ability of the system and reduces data redundancy efficiently. The transmitter of the VLC system encodes the input video sequence into gray code, which is projected via high-definition multimedia interface streaming in the form of binary images 590 × 1060. At the receiver, a monochrome HFR camera can simultaneously capture and decode 12-bit 512 × 512 images in real time and reconstruct a color video sequence at 60 fps. The efficiency of the visual feedback-based synchronization algorithm is evaluated by streaming offline and live video sequences, using a VLC system with single and dual projectors, providing a multiple-projector-based system. The results show that the 3000 fps camera was successfully synchronized with a 3000 fps single-projector and a 1500 fps dual-projector system. It was confirmed that the synchronization algorithm can also be applied to VLC systems, autonomous vehicles, and surveillance applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: visible light communication; real-time video processing; high speed vision; wireless video streaming; projector–camera synchronization visible light communication; real-time video processing; high speed vision; wireless video streaming; projector–camera synchronization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sharma, A.; Raut, S.; Shimasaki, K.; Senoo, T.; Ishii, I. Visual-Feedback-Based Frame-by-Frame Synchronization for 3000 fps Projector–Camera Visual Light Communication. Electronics 2021, 10, 1631. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10141631

AMA Style

Sharma A, Raut S, Shimasaki K, Senoo T, Ishii I. Visual-Feedback-Based Frame-by-Frame Synchronization for 3000 fps Projector–Camera Visual Light Communication. Electronics. 2021; 10(14):1631. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10141631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sharma, Atul, Sushil Raut, Kohei Shimasaki, Taku Senoo, and Idaku Ishii. 2021. "Visual-Feedback-Based Frame-by-Frame Synchronization for 3000 fps Projector–Camera Visual Light Communication" Electronics 10, no. 14: 1631. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10141631

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