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Resources, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The open nature of karst aquifers makes them susceptible to rapidly transporting contaminants from the surface in dissolved and particulate forms. The principal aim of this review is to contribute to filling the gap in the knowledge regarding major concerns affecting karst aquifers in addition to the understanding of their vulnerabilities and dynamics. The principal groundwater pollutants of relevance are detailed in the work. Emerging pollutants such as microplastics, still poorly studied in groundwater systems, were also considered. Case studies for each typology of pollutant were highlighted. The final considerations underline an approach for studying karst environments that is more focused on understanding the dynamics and links among different pollutant inputs and their drivers than on individual sources. View this paper
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21 pages, 1180 KiB  
Review
An Overall Perspective for the Study of Emerging Contaminants in Karst Aquifers
by Claudia Campanale, Daniela Losacco, Mariangela Triozzi, Carmine Massarelli and Vito Felice Uricchio
Resources 2022, 11(11), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11110105 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3137
Abstract
Karst aquifers are essential drinking water sources, representing about 25% of the total available sources globally. Groundwater ecosystems consist of fissured carbonate rocks commonly covered with canopy collapse sinkholes. The open nature of karst aquifers makes them susceptible to rapidly transporting contaminants from [...] Read more.
Karst aquifers are essential drinking water sources, representing about 25% of the total available sources globally. Groundwater ecosystems consist of fissured carbonate rocks commonly covered with canopy collapse sinkholes. The open nature of karst aquifers makes them susceptible to rapidly transporting contaminants from the surface in dissolved and particulate forms. The principal aim of this review is to contribute to filling the gap in knowledge regarding major concerns affecting karst aquifers and understanding their vulnerabilities and dynamics. The principal groundwater pollutants of relevance are detailed in the present work, including well-known issues, such as the input of agriculture and its role in water quality. Emerging pollutants such as microplastics, still poorly studied in the groundwater systems, were also considered. Case studies for each typology of pollutant were highlighted, as their relative concerns for karst environments. Final considerations underlined an approach for studying karst environments more focused on understanding dynamics and links among different pollutants inputs and their drivers than on individual sources and impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women's Special Issue Series: Sustainable Resource Management)
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14 pages, 6453 KiB  
Article
Identification of Geodiversity and Geosite Assessment around Geohazard Area of Suoh Aspiring Geopark in West Lampung, Sumatra, Indonesia
by Dicky Muslim, Zufialdi Zakaria, Heryadi Rachmat, Prahara Iqbal, Ghazi O. Muslim, Mohamad S. Sadewo and Fauzan N. Muslim
Resources 2022, 11(11), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11110104 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Indonesia has been actively promoting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed upon at the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. Pursuing economic expansion through extraction of natural resources is an obsolete paradigm that is becoming increasingly outdated. Therefore, the geopark concept has broken [...] Read more.
Indonesia has been actively promoting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed upon at the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. Pursuing economic expansion through extraction of natural resources is an obsolete paradigm that is becoming increasingly outdated. Therefore, the geopark concept has broken the idea of economic progress that damages the environment. Geoparks seek to safeguard geodiversity, educate the public about geological history, and assist the long-term economic growth of geopark areas, particularly through geotourism. Geotourism is a sort of creative tourism that is fast growing across the world. This paper aims to assess the existing status and geotourism potential in order to identify the best geosites for the West Lampung region’s initial geopark development. The methods of this study are a geology and geopark literature review, fieldwork, data analysis, and synthesis. The procedure includes inventorying and identifying geodiversity. The study looked at rock and outcrops to piece together the geological history of the West Lampung region. This study showed that the West Lampung region offers several remarkable geosites with significant geotourism development potential. Asam Lake, Nirwana Crater, and Point View Suoh Valley in the Suoh part have the greatest final values, followed by Batubrak Fault Depression in the Fault Depression section. The Batubrak Fault Depression and Asam Lake have significant scientific and tourist value, particularly in terms of portrayal, uniqueness, perspectives, scenery, and natural surroundings. In the Suoh section, Nirwana Crater, Kopi Susu Crater, Keramikan Crater, and Point View Suoh Valley have significant scientific importance but poor educational and tourism value, while the other sites have low scientific, tourist, and educational value, thus placing the area at the bottom of the assessment even though overall it is of medium value. It can be concluded that several geosites in West Lampung have poor value due to some factors such as location accessibility, tourism infrastructure, and location management. Looking at the total findings, basic tourism infrastructure, visitor center, and tour guide services, as well as promotional efforts, are important factors in attracting more tourists to the West Lampung geosites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodiversity Assessment: What, Why and How?)
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14 pages, 4031 KiB  
Article
Presenting the Spatio-Temporal Model for Predicting and Determining Permissible Land Use Changes Based on Drinking Water Quality Standards: A Case Study of Northern Iran
by Zahra Allahdad, Saeed Malmasi, Morvarid Montazeralzohour, Seyed Mohammad Moein Sadeghi and Mohammad M. Khabbazan
Resources 2022, 11(11), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11110103 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Quantifying the effect of non-point source pollution from different land use types (e.g., agricultural lands, pastures, orchards, and urban areas) on stream water quality is critical in determining the extent and type of land use. The relationship between surface water quality as the [...] Read more.
Quantifying the effect of non-point source pollution from different land use types (e.g., agricultural lands, pastures, orchards, and urban areas) on stream water quality is critical in determining the extent and type of land use. The relationship between surface water quality as the primary source of drinking water and land use patterns in suburban areas with an accelerated pace of industrial development and progressive growth of population has drawn much attention recently. This study aims to determine the type and portion of the land use changes over three-time intervals from 2000 to 2015 in the Jajrood River Catchment (Tehran metropolis, north of Iran). We used satellite images of Landsat TM and ETM for 2005, 2010, and 2015 to analyze land use changes as a spatiotemporal model. According to the image processing and analysis, we classified the land uses of the study area into irrigated farming, orchards, pastures, and residential areas. In addition, we used temporal data from sampling stations to identify the relationship between land use and water quality based on a multivariate regression model. The analysis shows a significant correlation between the type and extent of land use and water quality parameters, including pH, Na+, Ca+, Mg+, Cl, SO42−, NO3, and TDS. Pastures and residential areas had the highest impact on water quality parameters among all land use types. Besides, we have used the regression analysis results to determine the maximum permissible areas of each land use type. Consequently, effective management strategies such as land use optimization in catchment scale for this catchment and similar areas will help to consciously protect and manage the quality of drinking water resources. Full article
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21 pages, 2042 KiB  
Article
Municipal Solid Waste and Leachate Characterization in the Cairo Metropolitan Area
by Maged A. Hussieny, Mohamed S. Morsy, Mostafa Ahmed, Sherien Elagroudy and Mohamed H. Abdelrazik
Resources 2022, 11(11), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11110102 - 1 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2870
Abstract
The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the Cairo metropolitan area is investigated. The outputs of MSW sorting analysis at various locations in Cairo with different waste management schemes are presented. Organics (58–75%) and plastic waste (19–28%) are the main components of [...] Read more.
The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the Cairo metropolitan area is investigated. The outputs of MSW sorting analysis at various locations in Cairo with different waste management schemes are presented. Organics (58–75%) and plastic waste (19–28%) are the main components of MSW in Cairo with a higher percentage of organics in landfills compared to dumpsites. The leachate quality is analyzed, and the analysis results indicate that the concentration of macro inorganic pollutants (NH4+, Na+, Ca2+, and Cl) and heavy metals (e.g., Cd2+ and Zn2+) are exceeding the majority of values reported in the literature in various cities all over the world. There was no evidence of an effect of the recycling process on chloride concentration in leachate, while the concentration of iron was reduced. The variation of leachate quality with time for two samples collected from the same municipal solid waste landfill is presented. The first leachate sample is a two-year-old, and the second sample is a sixteen-year-old. There was a significant increase in the concentration of chloride, sodium, chromium, calcium, and magnesium. The implications of the leachate quality in Cairo on the longevity of barrier systems in an MSW landfill are discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 3093 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Educational Potential of Geosites: Introducing a Method Using Inquiry-Based Learning
by Emil Drápela
Resources 2022, 11(11), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11110101 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
Geosites are suitable locations for field teaching of Earth sciences. However, their educational potential does not always correlate with the scientific significance of geosites, as for educational purposes, the visibility and comprehensibility of the phenomenon are much more important. The educational potential also [...] Read more.
Geosites are suitable locations for field teaching of Earth sciences. However, their educational potential does not always correlate with the scientific significance of geosites, as for educational purposes, the visibility and comprehensibility of the phenomenon are much more important. The educational potential also depends on the target group, as a location suitable for the education of adults may not be suitable for the education of younger pupils. The article describes an experiment in which a method of assessing the educational potential of geosites was developed based on the analysis of the outputs of inquiry-based learning tasks during field teaching on geosites. The method is based on the gradual implementation and evaluation of the inquiry-based learning program for different categories of target groups, proceeding from more experienced and older to less experienced and younger participants. Although the method is relatively time-consuming, it provides very accurate results that can be applied to different target groups. The use of this method can help schools, institutions implementing extracurricular education programs, and geoparks to identify correctly suitable geosites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodiversity Assessment: What, Why and How?)
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18 pages, 6056 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Nearshore Wind Conditions Using Onshore Observation Data with Computational Fluid Dynamic and Mesoscale Models
by Mizuki Konagaya, Teruo Ohsawa, Toshinari Mito, Takeshi Misaki, Taro Maruo and Yasuyuki Baba
Resources 2022, 11(11), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11110100 - 30 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2135
Abstract
This study aimed to establish numerical models to replicate wind conditions for nearshore waters, sensitive to onshore topography, and to compare the characteristics of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and mesoscale models. Vertical Doppler light detection and ranging (LiDAR) observation data were measured at [...] Read more.
This study aimed to establish numerical models to replicate wind conditions for nearshore waters, sensitive to onshore topography, and to compare the characteristics of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and mesoscale models. Vertical Doppler light detection and ranging (LiDAR) observation data were measured at an onshore site, which showed that wind conditions were affected by thermodynamic phenomena, such as land and sea breeze, and dynamical effects from neighboring onshore topography. The estimation accuracy of the CFD model depended on the height of the LiDAR data input. A height close to the target, such as the hub height of wind turbines, seemed appropriate as input data, considering that the accuracy of the wind speed shear replicated in a CFD numerical model may be uncertain. The mesoscale model replicated the wind through the thermodynamic effect and reliably estimated wind speed over nearshore waters without observation correction. Larger estimation errors were detected in the CFD model than in the mesoscale model, as the former could not account for thermodynamic effects. Wind conditions in water areas near complex coastlines may also be formed by thermodynamic factors, making analysis using a mesoscale model advantageous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Clean Energies)
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17 pages, 684 KiB  
Perspective
The Rising Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine War: Energy Transition, Climate Justice, Global Inequality, and Supply Chain Disruption
by Zaheer Allam, Simon Elias Bibri and Samantha A. Sharpe
Resources 2022, 11(11), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11110099 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 65 | Viewed by 19478
Abstract
This perspective paper explores the rising impacts of the COVID-19 and the Russia–Ukraine war from different perspectives, with an emphasis on the role of climate financing in achieving equitable and just transition mechanisms and that of peace in expediting this pursuit and sustaining [...] Read more.
This perspective paper explores the rising impacts of the COVID-19 and the Russia–Ukraine war from different perspectives, with an emphasis on the role of climate financing in achieving equitable and just transition mechanisms and that of peace in expediting this pursuit and sustaining this drive. It is motivated by the realization that there is an urgent need for accelerating the decarbonisation agenda, as highlighted in pre-COP26 debates and in the resulting Glasgow Climate Pact, through the mitigation measures that can be unpacked at both cost and scale. This is further reiterated in the third instalment of Assessment Report 6 (AR6) the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, dwelling on Mitigation of Climate Change, underlining the required policy shifts and technology developmental needs. Green technology, however, comes at a green premium, being more expensive to implement in geographies that cannot absorb its cost in the immediate short term. This engenders an inequitable and unjust landscape, as those that require green technology are unable to have access to it but are most often on the frontlines of the impacts of climate change. While it is urgent to review this issue and to encourage more cooperation for technology development and transfer, the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine war are posing mounting challenges for achieving these objectives. These two crises are causing an unprecedented rise in commodities and labour pricing, with further knock-on impacts on global supply chains for technology. This is in turn rendering green technology unattainable for developing and less developed countries and Small Island Developing States (SIDS). Full article
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13 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
Innovation and Dynamic Productivity Growth in the Indonesian Food and Beverage Industry
by Maman Setiawan, Nury Effendi, Rina Indiastuti, Mohamad Fahmi and Budiono
Resources 2022, 11(11), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources11110098 - 25 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1813
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between innovation and dynamic productivity growth in the Indonesian food and beverage industry. Dynamic productivity growth is calculated using a Luenberger indicator, and innovation is represented by a process innovation. This research uses firm-level data for the period [...] Read more.
This paper examines the relationship between innovation and dynamic productivity growth in the Indonesian food and beverage industry. Dynamic productivity growth is calculated using a Luenberger indicator, and innovation is represented by a process innovation. This research uses firm-level data for the period 1980–2015 sourced from the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics. This research uses a panel data regression model to estimate the relationship between innovation and dynamic productivity growth. This research finds that innovation is relatively low in the Indonesian food and beverage industry. Dynamic productivity growth declines steadily during the period of estimation. This research also found that innovation positively affected dynamic productivity growth only after the introduction of the competition law in Indonesia. Full article
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