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Article

Serological Variety and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Isolated from Reptiles

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Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilžės g. 18, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Department of Bacteriological Investigations, National Food and Veterinary Risk Assessment Institute, J. Kairiūkščio g. 10, LT-08409 Vilniu, Lithuania
3
Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio al. 7, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Lithuanian Zoological Garden, Radvilėnų pl. 21, 50299 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Microbiology and Virology Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilžės g. 18, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
6
Institute of Animal Rearing Technologies, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilžės g. 18, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chrissoula Voidarou, Athina S. Tzora and Georgios Rozos
Biology 2022, 11(6), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060836
Received: 2 May 2022 / Revised: 24 May 2022 / Accepted: 25 May 2022 / Published: 29 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Diversity and Microbial Resistance)
Reptiles are carriers of different zoonotic pathogens hazardous to other animals and humans. Salmonella enterica is one of the best adapted bacterial pathogens causing infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in different reptile species and to evaluate their serological variety and patterns of antimicrobial resistance. In total, 97 samples from 25 wild and domesticated reptile species were investigated in Lithuania for the presence of Salmonella. Fifty isolates of Salmonella were obtained from the ninety-seven tested samples. Results demonstrated that lizards and snakes are frequent carriers of a large variety of Salmonella serovars. Sixty-eight per cent of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The most frequent resistance of the isolates was to streptomycin (26%), cefoxitin, gentamicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol (16%). Genes encoding resistance to different antimicrobial classes were detected. The data obtained provided knowledge on Salmonella prevalence in reptiles. Healthy individuals, irrespective of their origin, often carry Salmonella, including multi-resistant strains. Due to its large serological diversity, zoonotic potential and antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella in reptiles poses a risk to other animals and humans.
Salmonella enterica is one of the best adapted bacterial pathogens causing infections in a wide variety of vertebrate species. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in different reptile species and to evaluate their serological variety and patterns of antimicrobial resistance. In total, 97 samples from 25 wild and domesticated reptile species were investigated in Lithuania. Serological variety, as well as phenotypical and genotypical resistance to antimicrobials, were investigated. Fifty isolates of Salmonella were obtained from the ninety-seven tested samples (51.5%; 95% CI 41.2–61.2). A significantly higher prevalence of Salmonella was detected in domesticated individuals (61.3%; 95% CI 50.0–71.5) compared with wild ones (18.2%; 95% CI 7.3–38.5). All isolates belonged to a single species, Salmonella enterica. Results demonstrated that reptiles carry a large variety of Salmonella serovars. Thirty-four isolates (68%) of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. The most frequent resistance of the isolates was to streptomycin (26%), cefoxitin, gentamicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol (16%). Genes encoding resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, sulphonamides and trimethoprim were detected. No integrons that are associated with horizontal gene transfer were found. Data obtained provided knowledge about the adaptation of Salmonella in reptiles. Healthy individuals, irrespective of their origin, often carry Salmonella, including multi-resistant strains. Due to its large serological diversity, zoonotic potential and antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella in reptiles poses a risk to other animals and humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility; epidemiology; lizards; reptiles; snakes; Salmonella enterica antimicrobial susceptibility; epidemiology; lizards; reptiles; snakes; Salmonella enterica
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MDPI and ACS Style

Merkevičienė, L.; Butrimaitė-Ambrozevičienė, Č.; Paškevičius, G.; Pikūnienė, A.; Virgailis, M.; Dailidavičienė, J.; Daukšienė, A.; Šiugždinienė, R.; Ruzauskas, M. Serological Variety and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Isolated from Reptiles. Biology 2022, 11, 836. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060836

AMA Style

Merkevičienė L, Butrimaitė-Ambrozevičienė Č, Paškevičius G, Pikūnienė A, Virgailis M, Dailidavičienė J, Daukšienė A, Šiugždinienė R, Ruzauskas M. Serological Variety and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Isolated from Reptiles. Biology. 2022; 11(6):836. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060836

Chicago/Turabian Style

Merkevičienė, Lina, Česlova Butrimaitė-Ambrozevičienė, Gerardas Paškevičius, Alma Pikūnienė, Marius Virgailis, Jurgita Dailidavičienė, Agila Daukšienė, Rita Šiugždinienė, and Modestas Ruzauskas. 2022. "Serological Variety and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella Isolated from Reptiles" Biology 11, no. 6: 836. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11060836

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