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Antibiotics 2018, 7(2), 42;

Exploring the Effect of Phage Therapy in Preventing Vibrio anguillarum Infections in Cod and Turbot Larvae

Marine Biological Section, University of Copenhagen, 3000 Helsingør, Denmark
Department of Biology, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture, Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Fishlab, Højbjerg 8270, Denmark
ACD Pharmaceuticals AS, 8376 Leknes, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriophages: Alternatives to Antibiotics and Beyond)
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The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and inefficient vaccination at the larval stage of fish emphasizes the need for novel approaches, and phage therapy for controlling Vibrio pathogens has gained interest in the past few years. In this study, we examined the potential of the broad-host-range phage KVP40 to control four different V. anguillarum strains in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) larvae. We examined larval mortality and abundance of bacteria and phages. Phage KVP40 was able to reduce and/or delay the mortality of the cod and turbot larvae challenged with V. anguillarum. However, growth of other pathogenic bacteria naturally occurring on the fish eggs prior to our experiment caused mortality of the larvae in the unchallenged control groups. Interestingly, the broad-spectrum phage KVP40 was able to reduce mortality in these groups, compared to the nonchallenge control groups not treated with phage KVP40, demonstrating that the phage could also reduce mortality imposed by the background population of pathogens. Overall, phage-mediated reduction in mortality of cod and turbot larvae in experimental challenge assays with V. anguillarum pathogens suggested that application of broad-host-range phages can reduce Vibrio-induced mortality in turbot and cod larvae, emphasizing that phage therapy is a promising alternative to traditional treatment of vibriosis in marine aquaculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vibrio anguillarum; phage therapy; aquaculture; fish larvae; challenge trials Vibrio anguillarum; phage therapy; aquaculture; fish larvae; challenge trials

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Rørbo, N.; Rønneseth, A.; Kalatzis, P.G.; Rasmussen, B.B.; Engell-Sørensen, K.; Kleppen, H.P.; Wergeland, H.I.; Gram, L.; Middelboe, M. Exploring the Effect of Phage Therapy in Preventing Vibrio anguillarum Infections in Cod and Turbot Larvae. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 42.

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