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Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020029

Electrochemical Biosensors: A Solution to Pollution Detection with Reference to Environmental Contaminants

1
Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, CP 64849, Monterrey, N.L., Mexico
2
Exact and Natural Sciences, Institute of Biology, University of Antioquia, St. 67 No. 53-108, Medellín 050021, Colombia
3
Microsystems Technologies Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
4
Division of Engineering in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
5
Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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Abstract

The increasing environmental pollution with particular reference to emerging contaminants, toxic heavy elements, and other hazardous agents is a serious concern worldwide. Considering this global issue, there is an urgent need to design and develop strategic measuring techniques with higher efficacy and precision to detect a broader spectrum of numerous contaminants. The development of precise instruments can further help in real-time and in-process monitoring of the generation and release of environmental pollutants from different industrial sectors. Moreover, real-time monitoring can also reduce the excessive consumption of several harsh chemicals and reagents with an added advantage of on-site determination of contaminant composition prior to discharge into the environment. With key scientific advances, electrochemical biosensors have gained considerable attention to solve this problem. Electrochemical biosensors can be an excellent fit as an analytical tool for monitoring programs to implement legislation. Herein, we reviewed the current trends in the use of electrochemical biosensors as novel tools to detect various contaminant types including toxic heavy elements. A particular emphasis was given to screen-printed electrodes, nanowire sensors, and paper-based biosensors and their role in the pollution detection processes. Towards the end, the work is wrapped up with concluding remarks and future perspectives. In summary, electrochemical biosensors and related areas such as bioelectronics, and (bio)-nanotechnology seem to be growing areas that will have a marked influence on the development of new bio-sensing strategies in future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical biosensors; screen-printed electrodes; nanowire sensors; paper-based biosensors; emerging contaminants; toxic heavy elements; detection electrochemical biosensors; screen-printed electrodes; nanowire sensors; paper-based biosensors; emerging contaminants; toxic heavy elements; detection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hernandez-Vargas, G.; Sosa-Hernández, J.E.; Saldarriaga-Hernandez, S.; Villalba-Rodríguez, A.M.; Parra-Saldivar, R.; Iqbal, H.M.N. Electrochemical Biosensors: A Solution to Pollution Detection with Reference to Environmental Contaminants. Biosensors 2018, 8, 29.

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