Wearable technology and mobile healthcare systems are both increasingly popular solutions to traditional healthcare due to their ease of implementation and cost-effectiveness for remote health monitoring. Recent advances in research, especially the miniaturization of sensors, have significantly contributed to commercializing the wearable technology. Most of the traditional commercially available sensors are either mechanical or optical, but nowadays transdermal microneedles are also being used for micro-sensing such as continuous glucose monitoring. However, there remain certain challenges that need to be addressed before the possibility of large-scale deployment. The biggest challenge faced by all these wearable sensors is our skin, which has an inherent property to resist and protect the body from the outside world. On the other hand, biosensing is not possible without overcoming this resistance. Consequently, understanding the skin structure and its response to different types of sensing is necessary to remove the scientific barriers that are hindering our ability to design more efficient and robust skin sensors. In this article, we review research reports related to three different biosensing modalities that are commonly used along with the challenges faced in their implementation for detection. We believe this review will be of significant use to researchers looking to solve existing problems within the ongoing research in wearable sensors.
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