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Open AccessArticle

Antagonistic Interactions between Benzo[a]pyrene and Fullerene (C60) in Toxicological Response of Marine Mussels

1
School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
2
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
3
School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
4
Nanoscale and Microscale Research Centre, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
5
Centre for Chemical Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
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Ifremer, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, F-44311, CEDEX 03 Nantes, France
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Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3HD, UK
8
European Centre for Environment & Human Health (ECEHH), University of Exeter Medical School, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Cornwall TR1 3LJ, UK
9
Department of Analytical, Environmental and Forensic Sciences, King’s College London, MRC-PHE Centre for Environmental & Health, London SE1 9NH, UK
10
NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards at King’s College London in partnership with Public Health England and Imperial College London, London SE1 9NH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Present Address: Université de Rennes 1/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 6553 ECOBIO, F-35000 Rennes, France.
§
Present Address: Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76706, USA.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 987; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9070987
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology for Environmental and Biomedical Research)
This study aimed to assess the ecotoxicological effects of the interaction of fullerene (C60) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on the marine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The uptake of nC60, B[a]P and mixtures of nC60 and B[a]P into tissues was confirmed by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), Liquid Chromatography–High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC–HRMS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP–MS). Biomarkers of DNA damage as well as proteomics analysis were applied to unravel the interactive effect of B[a]P and C60. Antagonistic responses were observed at the genotoxic and proteomic level. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were only identified in the B[a]P single exposure and the B[a]P mixture exposure groups containing 1 mg/L of C60, the majority of which were downregulated (~52%). No DEPs were identified at any of the concentrations of nC60 (p < 0.05, 1% FDR). Using DEPs identified at a threshold of (p < 0.05; B[a]P and B[a]P mixture with nC60), gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that these proteins were enriched with a broad spectrum of biological processes and pathways, including those broadly associated with protein processing, cellular processes and environmental information processing. Among those significantly enriched pathways, the ribosome was consistently the top enriched term irrespective of treatment or concentration and plays an important role as the site of biological protein synthesis and translation. Our results demonstrate the complex multi-modal response to environmental stressors in M. galloprovincialis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trojan horse effect; B[a]P; nC60; co-exposure; mussels; DNA damage; proteomics Trojan horse effect; B[a]P; nC60; co-exposure; mussels; DNA damage; proteomics
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Barranger, A.; Langan, L.M.; Sharma, V.; Rance, G.A.; Aminot, Y.; Weston, N.J.; Akcha, F.; Moore, M.N.; Arlt, V.M.; Khlobystov, A.N.; Readman, J.W.; Jha, A.N. Antagonistic Interactions between Benzo[a]pyrene and Fullerene (C60) in Toxicological Response of Marine Mussels. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 987.

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