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Dissolved Organic Matter Modulates Algal Oxidative Stress and Membrane System Responses to Binary Mixtures of Nano-Metal-Oxides (nCeO2, nMgO and nFe3O4) and Sulfadiazine

1
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050712
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 24 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity and Ecotoxicity of Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

Joint biomarker responses, oxidative stress and membrane systems, were determined for nano-metal-oxides (nMeO, i.e., nCeO2, nMgO, and nFe3O4) and sulfadiazine (SDZ) exposed at relevant low concentrations to two freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The impacts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the joint biomarker responses were also investigated. Results indicated that the presence of SDZ significantly decreased the level of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the algal cells exposed to each nMeO. Reduction of cell membrane permeability (CMP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in the algal cells was observed when the algae were exposed to the mixture of SDZ and the nMeO. The degree of reduction of the ROS level, CMP, and MMP significantly went down with the addition of DOM to a certain extent. Changes in cellular oxidative stress and membrane function depended on the types of both nMeO and algal species. This contribution provides an insight into the hazard assessment of a mixture consisting of emerging contaminants and DOM, as they can coexist in the aquatic environment.
Keywords: nanoparticles; sulfadiazine; mixture toxicity; freshwater algae; dissolved organic matter nanoparticles; sulfadiazine; mixture toxicity; freshwater algae; dissolved organic matter
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhang, F.; Ye, N.; Wang, S.; Meng, Y.; Fang, H.; Wang, Z.; Wang, D.-G. Dissolved Organic Matter Modulates Algal Oxidative Stress and Membrane System Responses to Binary Mixtures of Nano-Metal-Oxides (nCeO2, nMgO and nFe3O4) and Sulfadiazine. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 712.

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