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Nanotransition Materials (NTMs): Photocatalysis, Validated High Effective Sorbent Models Study for Organic Dye Degradation and Precise Mathematical Data’s at Standardized Level

1
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Yanbu 00000, Saudi Arabia
2
Zoology Department, College of Science King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3
Al-Jeraisy, Chair for DNA Research, Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21321, Egypt
5
Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh UP 202002, India
6
Saraswati Devi Post Graduate College, Khadda Bazar, Kushinagar UP 274802, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8030134
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Nanomaterials for Future Technologies)
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Abstract

The present work describes the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) via a solution process with the aim of applying the nano-adsorbent for the reduction of methylene blue (MB) dye in alkaline media. These NPs were characterized via Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction, high-resolution Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultra violet UV-visible spectroscopy to confirm their morphology and crystalline and optical properties in order to design an adsorption-degradation process. The photocatalytic CuONPs exhibited dynamic properties, great adsorption affinity during the chemisorption process, and operated at various modes with a strong interaction between the adsorbent and the adsorptive species, and equilibrium isotherm, kinetic isotherm, and thermodynamic activities in the presence of UV light. All basic quantities, such as concentration, pH, adsorbent dose, time, and temperature, were determined by an optimization process. The best-fitted adsorption Langmuir model (R2 = 0.9988) and performance, including adsorption capacity (350.87 mg/g), photocatalytic efficiency (90.74%), and degradation rate constant (Ks = 2.23 ×10−2 min−1), illustrate good feasibility with respect to sorption-reduction reactions but followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic on the adsorbent surface, reaching an equilibrium point in 80 min. The thermodynamic analysis suggests that the adsorption reaction is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (∆H°), entropy (∆S°), and Gibbs free energy (∆G°) give effective results to support a chemical reduction reaction at 303 K temperature. The equilibrium isotherm and kinetic and thermodynamic models with error function analysis explore the potential, acceptability, accuracy, access to adsorbents, and novelty of an unrivaled-sorption system. View Full-Text
Keywords: CuONP synthesis; methylene blue (MB) dye; photocatalytic degradation; kinetic and equilibrium isotherm; thermodynamics; error analysis CuONP synthesis; methylene blue (MB) dye; photocatalytic degradation; kinetic and equilibrium isotherm; thermodynamics; error analysis
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Khan, F.; Wahab, R.; Hagar, M.; Alnoman, R.; Lutfullah; Rashid, M. Nanotransition Materials (NTMs): Photocatalysis, Validated High Effective Sorbent Models Study for Organic Dye Degradation and Precise Mathematical Data’s at Standardized Level. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 134.

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