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Open AccessArticle

Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers

by Wei Lu 1,2, Alan L. Kelly 2 and Song Miao 1,3,*
1
Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork P61C996, Ireland
2
School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork T12YN60, Ireland
3
China-Ireland International Cooperation Center for Food Material Science and Structure Design, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(9), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7090282
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Food Safety)
The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier) on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI)-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN)-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene. The bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated β-carotene based on the results of bioaccessibility and cellular uptake showed the same order with the results of cellular uptake being SCN > TW80 > WPI. An inconsistency between the results of bioaccessibility and bioavailability was observed, indicating that the cellular uptake assay is necessary for a reliable evaluation of the bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated compounds. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding of the correlation between emulsion structure and the digestive fate of emulsion-encapsulated nutrients, which make it possible to achieve controlled or potential targeted delivery of nutrients by designing the structure of emulsion-based carriers. View Full-Text
Keywords: emulsion; β-carotene; digestion; cellular uptake; bioavailability emulsion; β-carotene; digestion; cellular uptake; bioavailability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, W.; Kelly, A.L.; Miao, S. Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 282.

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