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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

A Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel Electrochemical Sensor for Naloxone Determination

1
Nanotechnology Research Centre, National Research Council Canada, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M9, Canada
2
Defence Research and Development Canada—Suffield Research Centre, Medicine Hat, AB T1A 8K6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katarzyna Siuzdak
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030631
Received: 8 February 2021 / Revised: 19 February 2021 / Accepted: 24 February 2021 / Published: 3 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensing Applications of Nanomaterials)
A molecularly imprinted sol-gel is reported for selective and sensitive electrochemical determination of the drug naloxone (NLX). The sensor was developed by combining molecular imprinting and sol-gel techniques and electrochemically grafting the sol solution onto a functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The sol-gel layer was obtained from acid catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of a solution composed of triethoxyphenylsilane (TEPS) and tetraethoxysilane (TES). The fabrication, structure and properties of the sensing material were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. Parameters affecting the sensor’s performance were evaluated and optimized. A sensor fabricated under the optimized conditions responded linearly between 0.0 µM and 12 µM NLX, with a detection limit of 0.02 µM. The sensor also showed good run-to-run repeatability and batch-to-batch performance reproducibility with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 2.5–7.8% (n = 3) and 9.2% (n = 4), respectively. The developed sensor displayed excellent selectivity towards NLX compared to structurally similar compounds (codeine, fentanyl, naltrexone and noroxymorphone), and was successfully used to measure NLX in synthetic urine samples yielding recoveries greater than 88%. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical detection; molecularly imprinted polymers; sol-gel; naloxone; nanomaterials; multiwall carbon nanotube electrochemical detection; molecularly imprinted polymers; sol-gel; naloxone; nanomaterials; multiwall carbon nanotube
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shaabani, N.; Chan, N.W.C.; Jemere, A.B. A Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel Electrochemical Sensor for Naloxone Determination. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 631. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030631

AMA Style

Shaabani N, Chan NWC, Jemere AB. A Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel Electrochemical Sensor for Naloxone Determination. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(3):631. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030631

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shaabani, Narges; Chan, Nora W.C.; Jemere, Abebaw B. 2021. "A Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel Electrochemical Sensor for Naloxone Determination" Nanomaterials 11, no. 3: 631. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030631

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