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Article

Assessment of Nanopollution from Commercial Products in Water Environments

1
Water Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
2
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg 2028, South Africa
3
Department of Environmental Health, Nelson Mandela University, Gqeberha 6019, South Africa
4
Centre for Environmental Management, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9031, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(10), 2537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102537
Received: 24 August 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 18 September 2021 / Published: 28 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Environment and Nanotoxicology)
The use of nano-enabled products (NEPs) can release engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into water resources, and the increasing commercialisation of NEPs raises the environmental exposure potential. The current study investigated the release of ENMs and their characteristics from six commercial products (sunscreens, body creams, sanitiser, and socks) containing nTiO2, nAg, and nZnO. ENMs were released in aqueous media from all investigated NEPs and were associated with ions (Ag+ and Zn2+) and coating agents (Si and Al). NEPs generally released elongated (7–9 × 66–70 nm) and angular (21–80 × 25–79 nm) nTiO2, near-spherical (12–49 nm) and angular nAg (21–76 × 29–77 nm), and angular nZnO (32–36 × 32–40 nm). NEPs released varying ENMs’ total concentrations (ca 0.4–95%) of total Ti, Ag, Ag+, Zn, and Zn2+ relative to the initial amount of ENMs added in NEPs, influenced by the nature of the product and recipient water quality. The findings confirmed the use of the examined NEPs as sources of nanopollution in water resources, and the physicochemical properties of the nanopollutants were determined. Exposure assessment data from real-life sources are highly valuable for enriching the robust environmental risk assessment of nanotechnology. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanopollution; nano-enabled products; engineered nanomaterials; physicochemical properties; aquatic environments nanopollution; nano-enabled products; engineered nanomaterials; physicochemical properties; aquatic environments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lehutso, R.F.; Thwala, M. Assessment of Nanopollution from Commercial Products in Water Environments . Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 2537. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102537

AMA Style

Lehutso RF, Thwala M. Assessment of Nanopollution from Commercial Products in Water Environments . Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(10):2537. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102537

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lehutso, Raisibe F., and Melusi Thwala. 2021. "Assessment of Nanopollution from Commercial Products in Water Environments " Nanomaterials 11, no. 10: 2537. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11102537

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