This paper describes the ecotoxicological effects of nanomaterials (NMs) as well as their testing methods. Standard ecotoxicity testing methods are applicable to nanomaterials as well but require some adaptation. We have taken into account methods that meet several conditions. They must be properly researched by a minimum of ten scientific articles where adaptation of the method to the NMs is also presented; use organisms suitable for simple and rapid ecotoxicity testing (SSRET); have a test period shorter than 30 days; require no special equipment; have low costs and have the possibility of optimization for high-throughput screening. From the standard assays described in guidelines developed by organizations such as Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and United States Environmental Protection Agency, which meet the required conditions, we selected as methods adaptable for NMs, some methods based on algae, duckweed, amphipods, daphnids, chironomids, terrestrial plants, nematodes and earthworms. By analyzing the effects of NMs on a wide range of organisms, it has been observed that these effects can be of several categories, such as behavioral, morphological, cellular, molecular or genetic effects. By comparing the EC50
values of some NMs it has been observed that such values are available mainly for aquatic ecotoxicity, with the most sensitive test being the algae assay. The most toxic NMs overall were the silver NMs.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited