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Open AccessArticle

Functional Carbon Materials Derived through Hypergolic Reactions at Ambient Conditions

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Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
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Physics Department, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030566
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 7 March 2020 / Accepted: 16 March 2020 / Published: 20 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures)
Carbon formation from organic precursors is an energy-consuming process that often requires the heating of a precursor in an oven at elevated temperature. In this paper, we present a conceptually different synthesis pathway for functional carbon materials based on hypergolic mixtures, i.e., mixtures that spontaneously ignite at ambient conditions once its ingredients contact each other. The reactions involved in such mixtures are highly exothermic, giving-off sizeable amounts of energy; hence, no any external heat source is required for carbonization, thus making the whole process more energy-liberating than energy-consuming. The hypergolic mixtures described here contain a combustible organic solid, such as nitrile rubber or a hydrazide derivative, and fuming nitric acid (100% HNO3) as a strong oxidizer. In the case of the nitrile rubber, carbon nanosheets are obtained, whereas in the case of the hydrazide derivative, photoluminescent carbon dots are formed. We also demonstrate that the energy released from these hypergolic reactions can serve as a heat source for the thermal conversion of certain triazine-based precursors into graphitic carbon nitride. Finally, certain aspects of the derived functional carbons in waste removal are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypergolic reactions; fuming nitric acid; carbon nanosheets; graphitic carbon nitride; photoluminescent carbon dots hypergolic reactions; fuming nitric acid; carbon nanosheets; graphitic carbon nitride; photoluminescent carbon dots
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chalmpes, N.; Asimakopoulos, G.; Spyrou, K.; Vasilopoulos, K.C.; Bourlinos, A.B.; Moschovas, D.; Avgeropoulos, A.; Karakassides, M.A.; Gournis, D. Functional Carbon Materials Derived through Hypergolic Reactions at Ambient Conditions. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 566.

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