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J. Intell., Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Psychometric Network Analysis of the Hungarian WAIS
J. Intell. 2019, 7(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence7030021 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 434
Abstract
The positive manifold—the finding that cognitive ability measures demonstrate positive correlations with one another—has led to models of intelligence that include a general cognitive ability or general intelligence (g). This view has been reinforced using factor analysis and reflective, higher-order latent [...] Read more.
The positive manifold—the finding that cognitive ability measures demonstrate positive correlations with one another—has led to models of intelligence that include a general cognitive ability or general intelligence (g). This view has been reinforced using factor analysis and reflective, higher-order latent variable models. However, a new theory of intelligence, Process Overlap Theory (POT), posits that g is not a psychological attribute but an index of cognitive abilities that results from an interconnected network of cognitive processes. These competing theories of intelligence are compared using two different statistical modeling techniques: (a) latent variable modeling and (b) psychometric network analysis. Network models display partial correlations between pairs of observed variables that demonstrate direct relationships among observations. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Hungarian Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition (H-WAIS-IV). The underlying structure of the H-WAIS-IV was first assessed using confirmatory factor analysis assuming a reflective, higher-order model and then reanalyzed using psychometric network analysis. The compatibility (or lack thereof) of these theoretical accounts of intelligence with the data are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Methods and Assessment Approaches in Intelligence Research)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relation of Tests of Scientific Reasoning to Each Other and to Tests of General Intelligence
J. Intell. 2019, 7(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence7030020 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 359
Abstract
We conducted two studies to replicate and extend, as well as test, the limits of previous findings regarding an apparent disconnect between scientific-reasoning skills in psychological science, on the one hand, and scores on standardized tests of general intelligence, on the other. In [...] Read more.
We conducted two studies to replicate and extend, as well as test, the limits of previous findings regarding an apparent disconnect between scientific-reasoning skills in psychological science, on the one hand, and scores on standardized tests of general intelligence, on the other. In Study 1, we examined whether this disconnect would extend beyond psychological science to additional sciences as well, such as nutrition and agriculture. The results did indeed extend, suggesting that scientific reasoning across various natural sciences is comparable to scientific reasoning in psychological science, but different in kind from the reasoning required on conventional standardized tests. In Study 2, we examined whether these findings were linked to the format of presentation of scientific problems. Whereas real scientific-reasoning problems are open-ended, standardized tests tend to use multiple-choice format. We discovered that using multiple-choice format did indeed result in an apparently closer relation of the scientific-reasoning tests to two of the conventional ability measures (SAT Reading and Number Series) but not to two other tests (Letter Sets and SAT Math). Thus, one can increase the correlations of scientific-reasoning tests with at least some standardized ability tests but at the cost of content validity and ecological validity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Gifted and Average-Ability Children’s Potential for Solving Analogy Items
J. Intell. 2019, 7(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence7030019 - 27 Aug 2019
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Analogical reasoning is assumed to play a large role in learning and problem solving in everyday and school settings. It was examined whether a newly developed dynamic test of analogical reasoning would be sufficiently difficult for identifying young gifted children’s potential for solving [...] Read more.
Analogical reasoning is assumed to play a large role in learning and problem solving in everyday and school settings. It was examined whether a newly developed dynamic test of analogical reasoning would be sufficiently difficult for identifying young gifted children’s potential for solving analogies. The study included 74 gifted (n = 31) and average-ability (n = 43) children between 7 and 8 years old. Employing a pre-test–training–post-test format, in which half of the children received a graduated prompts training and the other half received a control task between pre-test and post-test, it was investigated (1) whether trained children would improve more in accuracy from pre-test to post-test than their untrained peers, and whether (2) gifted and average-ability children would demonstrate differences in their level of improvement from pre-test to post-test, and (3) their needs for instruction during training. The results indicated that dynamically tested children improved more than those in the control condition. In addition, the dynamic test seemed sufficiently difficult for the gifted children: regardless of whether they were trained, gifted children demonstrated superior accuracy scores than their average-ability agemates at pre-test and post-test, but similar levels of improvement. They were also found to need fewer instructions during training. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Not All Factors Contribute Equally to European-American and Hispanic Students’ SAT Scores
J. Intell. 2019, 7(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence7030018 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 829
Abstract
This exploratory study shows that the contributions of cognitive, metacognitive awareness, performance avoidance, test anxiety, and socioeconomic family background factors to SAT scores (i.e., overall SAT, SAT-V, SAT-M) may vary as a function of ethnicity (i.e., European-American, Hispanic). Four hundred and fifty-seven students, [...] Read more.
This exploratory study shows that the contributions of cognitive, metacognitive awareness, performance avoidance, test anxiety, and socioeconomic family background factors to SAT scores (i.e., overall SAT, SAT-V, SAT-M) may vary as a function of ethnicity (i.e., European-American, Hispanic). Four hundred and fifty-seven students, 282 European-American and 175 Hispanic, completed multiple measures of cognitive, metacognitive awareness, social/personality (i.e., test anxiety, performance avoidance, academic self-efficacy), and socioeconomic family background factors, which were used in regression analyses predicting overall SAT, SAT-V, and SAT-M scores. The results show that most factors contributed significantly to overall SAT, SAT-M, and SAT-V scores. In addition, the ethnicity X test anxiety interaction was significant for all three SAT measures, a finding that suggests ethnic differences in the contributions of test anxiety to overall SAT, SAT-M, and SAT-V scores. For European-American students, test anxiety had no influence on overall SAT and SAT-M scores, whereas for Hispanic students test anxiety had a negative influence on overall SAT and SAT-M scores. For SAT-V scores, interpreting the ethnicity X test anxiety interaction was more complicated because both the significant main effect of test anxiety and the ethnicity X test anxiety interaction must be interpreted together. Whereas test anxiety negatively influenced European-Americans’ SAT-V scores, this negative influence was less than the influence it had on Hispanic students’ SAT-V scores. Indeed, for Hispanic students with high test anxiety, this negative influence was profound. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that any theory explaining the SAT may need to take into account multiple predictors as well as the possibility that the contributions of these predictors may vary as a function of ethnicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What Does the SAT Measure?)
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Open AccessArticle
Same Test, Better Scores: Boosting the Reliability of Short Online Intelligence Recruitment Tests with Nested Logit Item Response Theory Models
J. Intell. 2019, 7(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence7030017 - 10 Jul 2019
Viewed by 958
Abstract
Assessing job applicants’ general mental ability online poses psychometric challenges due to the necessity of having brief but accurate tests. Recent research (Myszkowski & Storme, 2018) suggests that recovering distractor information through Nested Logit Models (NLM; Suh & Bolt, 2010) increases the reliability [...] Read more.
Assessing job applicants’ general mental ability online poses psychometric challenges due to the necessity of having brief but accurate tests. Recent research (Myszkowski & Storme, 2018) suggests that recovering distractor information through Nested Logit Models (NLM; Suh & Bolt, 2010) increases the reliability of ability estimates in reasoning matrix-type tests. In the present research, we extended this result to a different context (online intelligence testing for recruitment) and in a larger sample ( N = 2949 job applicants). We found that the NLMs outperformed the Nominal Response Model (Bock, 1970) and provided significant reliability gains compared with their binary logistic counterparts. In line with previous research, the gain in reliability was especially obtained at low ability levels. Implications and practical recommendations are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of an Intelligence Dataset)
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Open AccessArticle
Mene Mene Tekel Upharsin: Clerical Speed and Elementary Cognitive Speed are Different by Virtue of Test Mode Only
J. Intell. 2019, 7(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence7030016 - 09 Jul 2019
Viewed by 903
Abstract
Current taxonomies of intelligence comprise two factors of mental speed, clerical speed (Gs), and elementary cognitive speed (Gt). Both originated from different research traditions and are conceptualized as dissociable constructs in current taxonomies. However, previous research suggests that tasks of one category can [...] Read more.
Current taxonomies of intelligence comprise two factors of mental speed, clerical speed (Gs), and elementary cognitive speed (Gt). Both originated from different research traditions and are conceptualized as dissociable constructs in current taxonomies. However, previous research suggests that tasks of one category can be transferred into the other category by simply changing the mode of administration, i.e., in form of a paper-and-pencil test or in from of a computer-based elementary cognitive task. However, cross-mode correlations for specific tasks are usually only moderate. In the present study, mental speed was assessed as a broad construct across different tasks and stimulus materials. This allowed modeling mental speed as a hierarchical construct for paper-and-pencil as well as for computer-based tests. Cross-mode correlations of the respective general factors were moderate (r = 0.64), while the cross-mode correlations of task-specific components depended on task type (r = 0.12 to r = 0.71). Only the g factors of mental speed, but not the task-specific components, were found to be related with working memory capacity as a marker of cognitive ability. The speed general factor modeled across computer-based tests was more highly correlated with working memory capacity (r = 0.66) than the general factor modeled across paper-and-pencil tests (r = 0.46). These findings corroborate a crucial role of the assessment method and imply that validity of speed tests is affected by the choice of the test format. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Computer-Based Collaborative Problem Solving in PISA 2015 and the Role of Personality
J. Intell. 2019, 7(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence7030015 - 01 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is an essential 21st century skill at the intersection of social collaboration and cognitive problem solving, and is increasingly integrated in educational programs, such as the influential Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). As research has identified the impact [...] Read more.
Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is an essential 21st century skill at the intersection of social collaboration and cognitive problem solving, and is increasingly integrated in educational programs, such as the influential Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). As research has identified the impact of the Big Five personality traits either on cognitive ability or social collaboration skills in groups, this study firstly identified their impact on the conjoint construct of CPS. Results from structural equation modelling (N = 483) found openness to experience and agreeableness as predictors for CPS performance. The results are embedded in the lifelong learning and investment model by Ackermann and provide implications for PISA 2015, as original PISA 2015 CPS tasks were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Collective Intelligence: Individual and Team Ability)
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Open AccessArticle
Searching for G: A New Evaluation of SPM-LS Dimensionality
J. Intell. 2019, 7(3), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence7030014 - 28 Jun 2019
Viewed by 1075
Abstract
There has been increased interest in assessing the quality and usefulness of short versions of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices. A recent proposal, composed of the last twelve matrices of the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM-LS), has been depicted as a valid measure of g [...] Read more.
There has been increased interest in assessing the quality and usefulness of short versions of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices. A recent proposal, composed of the last twelve matrices of the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM-LS), has been depicted as a valid measure of g. Nonetheless, the results provided in the initial validation questioned the assumption of essential unidimensionality for SPM-LS scores. We tested this hypothesis through two different statistical techniques. Firstly, we applied exploratory graph analysis to assess SPM-LS dimensionality. Secondly, exploratory bi-factor modelling was employed to understand the extent that potential specific factors represent significant sources of variance after a general factor has been considered. Results evidenced that if modelled appropriately, SPM-LS scores are essentially unidimensional, and that constitute a reliable measure of g. However, an additional specific factor was systematically identified for the last six items of the test. The implications of such findings for future work on the SPM-LS are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of an Intelligence Dataset)
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