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Computation, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Pressure-Induced Deformation of Pillar-Type Profiled Membranes and Its Effects on Flow and Mass Transfer
Computation 2019, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020032
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
In electro-membrane processes, a pressure difference may arise between solutions flowing in alternate channels. This transmembrane pressure (TMP) causes a deformation of the membranes and of the fluid compartments. This, in turn, affects pressure losses and mass transfer rates with respect to undeformed [...] Read more.
In electro-membrane processes, a pressure difference may arise between solutions flowing in alternate channels. This transmembrane pressure (TMP) causes a deformation of the membranes and of the fluid compartments. This, in turn, affects pressure losses and mass transfer rates with respect to undeformed conditions and may result in uneven flow rate and mass flux distributions. These phenomena were analyzed here for round pillar-type profiled membranes by integrated mechanical and fluid dynamics simulations. The analysis involved three steps: (1) A conservatively large value of TMP was imposed, and mechanical simulations were performed to identify the geometry with the minimum pillar density still able to withstand this TMP without collapsing (i.e., without exhibiting contacts between opposite membranes); (2) the geometry thus identified was subject to expansion and compression conditions in a TMP interval including the values expected in practical applications, and for each TMP, the corresponding deformed configuration was predicted; and (3) for each computed deformed configuration, flow and mass transfer were predicted by computational fluid dynamics. Membrane deformation was found to have important effects; friction and mass transfer coefficients generally increased in compressed channels and decreased in expanded channels, while a more complex behavior was obtained for mass transfer coefficients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Binary Competitive Swarm Optimizer Approaches for Feature Selection
Computation 2019, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020031
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
Feature selection is known as an NP-hard combinatorial problem in which the possible feature subsets increase exponentially with the number of features. Due to the increment of the feature size, the exhaustive search has become impractical. In addition, a feature set normally [...] Read more.
Feature selection is known as an NP-hard combinatorial problem in which the possible feature subsets increase exponentially with the number of features. Due to the increment of the feature size, the exhaustive search has become impractical. In addition, a feature set normally includes irrelevant, redundant, and relevant information. Therefore, in this paper, binary variants of a competitive swarm optimizer are proposed for wrapper feature selection. The proposed approaches are used to select a subset of significant features for classification purposes. The binary version introduced here is performed by employing the S-shaped and V-shaped transfer functions, which allows the search agents to move on the binary search space. The proposed approaches are tested by using 15 benchmark datasets collected from the UCI machine learning repository, and the results are compared with other conventional feature selection methods. Our results prove the capability of the proposed binary version of the competitive swarm optimizer not only in terms of high classification performance, but also low computational cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computational Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Implementation and Theoretical Investigation of a Vanadium Dioxide Optical Filter for Bit Error Rate Enhancement of Enhanced Space Shift Keying Visible Light Communication Systems
Computation 2019, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020030
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
Visible Light Communication (VLC) systems use light-emitting diode (LED) technology to provide high-capacity optical links. The advantages they offer, such as the high data rate and the low installation and operational cost, have identified them as a significant solution for modern networks. However, [...] Read more.
Visible Light Communication (VLC) systems use light-emitting diode (LED) technology to provide high-capacity optical links. The advantages they offer, such as the high data rate and the low installation and operational cost, have identified them as a significant solution for modern networks. However, such systems are vulnerable to various exogenous factors, with the background sunlight noise having the greatest impact. In order to reduce the negative influence of the background noise effect, optical filters can be used. In this work, for the first time, a low-cost optical vanadium dioxide (VO2) optical filter has been designed and experimentally implemented based on the requirements of typical and realistic VLC systems in order to significantly increase their performance by reducing the transmittance of background noise. The functionality of the specific filter is investigated by means of its bit error rate (BER) performance estimation, taking into account its experimentally measured characteristics. Numerous results are provided in order to prove the significant performance enhancement of the VLC systems which, as it is shown, reaches almost six orders of magnitude in some cases, using the specific experimental optical filter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Wireless Communication Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Method for Pressure Mapping between Shell Meshes of Varying Geometries and Resolutions
Computation 2019, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020029
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 10 June 2019 / Accepted: 11 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
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Abstract
This manuscript discusses a novel method to map pressure results from one 3D surface shell mesh onto another. This method works independently of the actual pressures, and only focuses on ensuring the surface areas consistently match. By utilizing this approach, the cumulative forces [...] Read more.
This manuscript discusses a novel method to map pressure results from one 3D surface shell mesh onto another. This method works independently of the actual pressures, and only focuses on ensuring the surface areas consistently match. By utilizing this approach, the cumulative forces consistently match for all input pressures. This method is demonstrated to work for pressure profiles with precipitous changes in pressures, and with small quadrangular source elements being applied to a mix of large quadrangular and triangular target elements, and the forces at all pressure profiles match remarkably. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of Hard-Switching Based Hybrid FSO/RF System over Turbulence Channels
Computation 2019, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020028
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
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Abstract
The hybrid system of free space optic (FSO) and radio frequency (RF) has come forth as alternative good solution for increasing demand for high data rates in wireless communication networks. In this paper, wireless networks with hard-switching between FSO and RF link are [...] Read more.
The hybrid system of free space optic (FSO) and radio frequency (RF) has come forth as alternative good solution for increasing demand for high data rates in wireless communication networks. In this paper, wireless networks with hard-switching between FSO and RF link are analyzed, assuming that at a certain time point either one of the two links are active, with FSO link having higher priority. As the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of FSO link falls below a certain selected threshold, the RF link is activated. In this work, it is assumed that the FSO link follows Gamma-Gamma fading due to the atmospheric turbulence effect whereas RF link experiences Rayleigh fading. To analyze the proposed hybrid model, analytical expressions are derived for the outage probability, bit error rate and ergodic capacity. A numerical comparison is also done between the performances of the proposed hybrid FSO/RF model and the single FSO model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Wireless Communication Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Structure and Properties of High and Low Free Volume Polymers Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Computation 2019, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020027
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
Using molecular dynamics, a comparative study was performed of two pairs of glassy polymers, low permeability polyetherimides (PEIs) and highly permeable Si-containing polytricyclononenes. All calculations were made with 32 independent models for each polymer. In both cases, the accessible free volume (AFV) increases [...] Read more.
Using molecular dynamics, a comparative study was performed of two pairs of glassy polymers, low permeability polyetherimides (PEIs) and highly permeable Si-containing polytricyclononenes. All calculations were made with 32 independent models for each polymer. In both cases, the accessible free volume (AFV) increases with decreasing probe size. However, for a zero-size probe, the curves for both types of polymers cross the ordinate in the vicinity of 40%. The size distribution of free volume in PEI and highly permeable polymers differ significantly. In the former case, they are represented by relatively narrow peaks, with the maxima in the range of 0.5–1.0 Å for all the probes from H2 to Xe. In the case of highly permeable Si-containing polymers, much broader peaks are observed to extend up to 7–8 Å for all the gaseous probes. The obtained size distributions of free volume and accessible volume explain the differences in the selectivity of the studied polymers. The surface area of AFV is found for PEIs using Delaunay tessellation. Its analysis and the chemical nature of the groups that form the surface of free volume elements are presented and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Chemical Space of Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors Using Integrated Physicochemical Parameters, Drug Efficiency Metrics and Decision Tree Models
Computation 2019, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020026
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
The cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a central role in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds including drugs. CYPs are vulnerable to inhibition and induction which can lead to adverse drug reactions. Therefore, insights into the underlying mechanism of CYP450 inhibition and [...] Read more.
The cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play a central role in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds including drugs. CYPs are vulnerable to inhibition and induction which can lead to adverse drug reactions. Therefore, insights into the underlying mechanism of CYP450 inhibition and the estimation of overall CYP inhibitor properties might serve as valuable tools during the early phases of drug discovery. Herein, we present a large data set of inhibitors against five major metabolic CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) for the evaluation of important physicochemical properties and ligand efficiency metrics to define property trends across various activity levels (active, efficient and inactive). Decision tree models for CYP inhibition were developed with an accuracy >90% for both the training set and 10-folds cross validation. Overall, molecular weight (MW), hydrogen bond acceptors/donors (HBA/HBD) and lipophilicity (clogP/logPo/w) represent important physicochemical descriptors for CYP450 inhibitors. However, highly efficient CYP inhibitors show mean MW, HBA, HBD and logP values between 294.18–482.40,5.0–8.2,1–7.29 and 1.68–2.57, respectively. Our results might help in optimization of toxicological profiles associated with new chemical entities (NCEs), through a better understanding of inhibitor properties leading to CYP-mediated interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer-Aided Drug Design)
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Open AccessArticle
DeepReco: Deep Learning Based Health Recommender System Using Collaborative Filtering
Computation 2019, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020025
Received: 15 March 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 18 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
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Abstract
In today’s digital world healthcare is one core area of the medical domain. A healthcare system is required to analyze a large amount of patient data which helps to derive insights and assist the prediction of diseases. This system should be intelligent in [...] Read more.
In today’s digital world healthcare is one core area of the medical domain. A healthcare system is required to analyze a large amount of patient data which helps to derive insights and assist the prediction of diseases. This system should be intelligent in order to predict a health condition by analyzing a patient’s lifestyle, physical health records and social activities. The health recommender system (HRS) is becoming an important platform for healthcare services. In this context, health intelligent systems have become indispensable tools in decision making processes in the healthcare sector. Their main objective is to ensure the availability of the valuable information at the right time by ensuring information quality, trustworthiness, authentication and privacy concerns. As people use social networks to understand their health condition, so the health recommender system is very important to derive outcomes such as recommending diagnoses, health insurance, clinical pathway-based treatment methods and alternative medicines based on the patient’s health profile. Recent research which targets the utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed which reduces the workload and cost in health care. In the healthcare sector, big data analytics using recommender systems have an important role in terms of decision-making processes with respect to a patient’s health. This paper gives a proposed intelligent HRS using Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM)-Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) deep learning method, which provides an insight into how big data analytics can be used for the implementation of an effective health recommender engine, and illustrates an opportunity for the health care industry to transition from a traditional scenario to a more personalized paradigm in a tele-health environment. By considering Root Square Mean Error (RSME) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) values, the proposed deep learning method (RBM-CNN) presents fewer errors compared to other approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computational Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Attack Detection for Healthcare Monitoring Systems Using Mechanical Learning in Virtual Private Networks over Optical Transport Layer Architecture
Computation 2019, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020024
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
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Abstract
Data security plays a crucial role in healthcare monitoring systems, since critical patient information is transacted over the Internet, especially through wireless devices, wireless routes such as optical wireless channels, or optical transport networks related to optical fibers. Many hospitals are acquiring their [...] Read more.
Data security plays a crucial role in healthcare monitoring systems, since critical patient information is transacted over the Internet, especially through wireless devices, wireless routes such as optical wireless channels, or optical transport networks related to optical fibers. Many hospitals are acquiring their own metro dark fiber networks for collaborating with other institutes as a way to maximize their capacity to meet patient needs, as sharing scarce and expensive assets, such as scanners, allows them to optimize their efficiency. The primary goal of this article is to develop of an attack detection model suitable for healthcare monitoring systems that uses internet protocol (IP) virtual private networks (VPNs) over optical transport networks. To this end, this article presents the vulnerabilities in healthcare monitoring system networks, which employ VPNs over optical transport layer architecture. Furthermore, a multilayer network architecture for closer integration of the IP and optical layers is proposed, and an application for detecting DoS attacks is introduced. The proposed application is a lightweight implementation that could be applied and installed into various remote healthcare control devices with limited processing and memory resources. Finally, an analytical and focused approach correlated to attack detection is proposed, which can also serve as a tutorial oriented towards even nonprofessionals for practical and learning purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Wireless Communication Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Computation of Stability Criterion for Fractional Shimizu–Morioka System Using Optimal Routh–Hurwitz Conditions
Computation 2019, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020023
Received: 7 April 2019 / Revised: 21 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Nowadays, the dynamics of non-integer order system or fractional modelling has become a widely studied topic due to the belief that the fractional system has hereditary properties. Hence, as part of understanding the dynamic behaviour, in this paper, we will perform the computation [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the dynamics of non-integer order system or fractional modelling has become a widely studied topic due to the belief that the fractional system has hereditary properties. Hence, as part of understanding the dynamic behaviour, in this paper, we will perform the computation of stability criterion for a fractional Shimizu–Morioka system. Different from the existing stability analysis for a fractional dynamical system in literature, we apply the optimal Routh–Hurwitz conditions for this fractional Shimizu–Morioka system. Furthermore, we introduce the way to calculate the range of adjustable control parameter β to obtain the stability criterion for fractional Shimizu–Morioka system. The result will be verified by using the predictor-corrector scheme to obtain the time series solution for the fractional Shimizu–Morioka system. The findings of this study can provide a better understanding of how adjustable control parameter β influences the stability criterion for fractional Shimizu–Morioka system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computational Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
A Method of Accelerating the Convergence of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Micro-Siting Wind Mapping
Computation 2019, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020022
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
To assess wind resources, a number of simulations should be performed by wind direction, wind speed, and atmospheric stability bins to conduct micro-siting using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This study proposes a method of accelerating CFD convergence by generating initial conditions that are [...] Read more.
To assess wind resources, a number of simulations should be performed by wind direction, wind speed, and atmospheric stability bins to conduct micro-siting using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This study proposes a method of accelerating CFD convergence by generating initial conditions that are closer to the converged solution. In addition, the study proposes the ‘mirrored initial condition’ (IC) using the symmetry of wind direction and geography, the ‘composed IC’ using the vector composition principle, and the ‘shifted IC’ which assumes that the wind speed vectors are similar in conditions characterized by minute differences in wind direction as the well-posed initial conditions. They provided a significantly closer approximation to the converged flow field than did the conventional initial condition, which simply assumed a homogenous atmospheric boundary layer over the entire simulation domain. The results of this study show that the computation time taken for micro-siting can be shortened by around 35% when conducting CFD with 16 wind direction sectors by mixing the conventional and the proposed ICs properly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods in Wind Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of a Generalized Viral Infection Model with Distributed Delays and CTL Immune Response
Computation 2019, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020021
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we propose and investigate a diffusive viral infection model with distributed delays and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response. Also, both routes of infection that are virus-to-cell infection and cell-to-cell transmission are modeled by two general nonlinear incidence functions. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose and investigate a diffusive viral infection model with distributed delays and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response. Also, both routes of infection that are virus-to-cell infection and cell-to-cell transmission are modeled by two general nonlinear incidence functions. The well-posedness of the proposed model is also proved by establishing the global existence, uniqueness, nonnegativity and boundedness of solutions. Moreover, the threshold parameters and the global asymptotic stability of equilibria are obtained. Furthermore, diffusive and delayed virus dynamics models presented in many previous studies are improved and generalized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computational Biology)
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Open AccessArticle
Invertible Autoencoder for Domain Adaptation
Computation 2019, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation7020020
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
The unsupervised image-to-image translation aims at finding a mapping between the source (A) and target (B) image domains, where in many applications aligned image pairs are not available at training. This is an ill-posed learning problem since it requires [...] Read more.
The unsupervised image-to-image translation aims at finding a mapping between the source ( A ) and target ( B ) image domains, where in many applications aligned image pairs are not available at training. This is an ill-posed learning problem since it requires inferring the joint probability distribution from marginals. Joint learning of coupled mappings F A B : A B and F B A : B A is commonly used by the state-of-the-art methods, like CycleGAN to learn this translation by introducing cycle consistency requirement to the learning problem, i.e., F A B ( F B A ( B ) ) B and F B A ( F A B ( A ) ) A . Cycle consistency enforces the preservation of the mutual information between input and translated images. However, it does not explicitly enforce F B A to be an inverse operation to F A B . We propose a new deep architecture that we call invertible autoencoder (InvAuto) to explicitly enforce this relation. This is done by forcing an encoder to be an inverted version of the decoder, where corresponding layers perform opposite mappings and share parameters. The mappings are constrained to be orthonormal. The resulting architecture leads to the reduction of the number of trainable parameters (up to 2 times). We present image translation results on benchmark datasets and demonstrate state-of-the art performance of our approach. Finally, we test the proposed domain adaptation method on the task of road video conversion. We demonstrate that the videos converted with InvAuto have high quality and show that the NVIDIA neural-network-based end-to-end learning system for autonomous driving, known as PilotNet, trained on real road videos performs well when tested on the converted ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning for Computational Science and Engineering)
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Computation EISSN 2079-3197 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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