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Religions 2017, 8(9), 165;

The Racialization of Islam in the United States: Islamophobia, Hate Crimes, and “Flying while Brown”

Department of Sociology, Rice University; 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 770055, USA
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
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This paper explores the intersectionality of race and Islamophobia by using a set of empirical data relating to the experiences of American Muslims and non-Muslims in the United States. Through a multi-tiered methodology, the paper reveals how racialization processes interact with Islamophobic discourses and actions in American society. Specifically, the dataset is anchored in U.S. public perceptions of American Muslims, hate crime incidents against Muslims and non-Muslims, and the institutionalization of Islamophobia. The paper, which shows how race is endemic to Islamophobic incidents, appeals to the general U.S. public, especially community members from religious, political, academic, civil rights, and social justice backgrounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: American Muslims; Islamophobia; race; racial state; racism American Muslims; Islamophobia; race; racial state; racism
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Considine, C. The Racialization of Islam in the United States: Islamophobia, Hate Crimes, and “Flying while Brown”. Religions 2017, 8, 165.

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