Animals in Medieval Chinese Biographies of Buddhist Monks
2. Tiger Stories
2.1. Huijiao’s Collection
During the Yixi period (A.D., 405–408) a tiger appeared in the Xinyang 新陽 District and harmed villagers. In a large shrine in this District, a building was constructed under a tree. Well over a hundred people lived in the village [at some distance from the shrine]; every evening one or two persons encountered the tiger outside the village and were killed. Faan was travelling in the District and came to the village. The villagers, fearing the tiger, had already closed the village gate. Faan meditated under a tree [near the shrine building]. Toward dawn the sound of the tiger was heard, as it dropped the corpse it was carrying on its back on the northern side of the tree. When the tiger saw Faan, it jumped, delighted and surprised, and lay down before him. Faan preached and conferred precepts on the tiger. The tiger, squatting on the ground, did not move; after a while it went away.
Villagers chasing the tiger came to the tree. Seeing Faan there, they were astonished. They took him to be a divine person and told the story everywhere in the District. People in the District came to worship Faan. From then on, the tiger stopped harming the villagers. People converted the shrine building into a Buddhist temple and requested Faan to stay there. Fields and gardens in the area were donated (for its upkeep).(T. 2059: 50.362c1–10; Kōsōden, vol. II, p. 257)
Sengguang travelled to this mountain at the beginning [of] the Yonghe period (A.D., 345–356). Local people told him that dangerous animals lived on the mountain, and, fearing the mountain deities’ violent mischief, people had stayed away for a long time.
Sengguang was not afraid; he got a path cleared and went into the mountain. After walking a few miles, he encountered powerful wind and heavy rain. A band of tigers roared. On the southern side of the mountain Sengguang found a rock cave, where he stayed and meditated. In the morning, the rain stopped, and he walked to the village, begged for food, and returned to the mountain in the evening.
Sengguang repeated this for three days, when the mountain deity appeared to him in a dream. Some [of the deity’s attendants] had taken on the form of a tiger, and others were in a snake’s body. They vied with each other in [an attempt] to frighten Sengguang. But the monk was not scared at all. Three days later he again saw the mountain deity in a dream; the deity presented the mountain to Sengguang, explaining that he had moved to Mt. Hanshi 寒石 in Zhang’an 章安 District.
This too is a monastic origin story. In this story, ferocious animals (tigers and snakes) had harmed the local people for a long time. However, in a dream to a powerful meditator monk, these animals reveal themselves to be attendants of the mountain deity. Sengguang was an intruder. Behaving like a local ruler, the mountain deity first attempted to frighten him away, but Sengguang remained immune to the threat. Acknowledging the superior spiritual power, presumably of the monk’s meditation, the deity then moved away, offering the mountain to him. Here, dangerous animals living away from the human community are presented as attendants of a mountain deity who, similar to a human patron, offered residence to the monk. This transition occurs in the half real and half unreal state of a dream.After this, people were able to collect firewood and move freely on the mountain. They served Sengguang, attending to his needs. Other meditators and scholars came and built huts at the side of the cave, gradually turning the site into a monastery, called Yinyue 隱岳 (“Hidden Mountain”).(2059: 50.395c7–17; Kōsōden, vol. iv, p. 33)
Dozens of tigers came and squatted in front of him. Tanyou recited scriptures. When one tiger dozed off, Tanyou tapped on the tiger’s head, asking why it wouldn’t listen to the scripture. Suddenly, all the tigers left. A short while later, very large snakes appeared and circled around Tanyou. Moving back and forth, they raised their heads and tilted toward him. Half a day later, they went away.
A day later, a deity manifested himself to Tanyou, saying, “Since the Dharma master, powerful and virtuous, came to this mountain to stay, I, your disciple, present this cave to you.”
An exchange followed:
Again, as noted above, the deity who offered the mountain to Sengguang said that he was moving to Mt. Hanshi.Tanyou proposed to share the mountain with the deity, but the deity declined. The deity himself was willing to share, but [he feared that] his underlings, not having been civilized by exposure to the Buddhist teaching, might prove difficult to control. Other beings would come visiting from afar and might behave offensively to Tanyou. Gods and human beings follow different moralities. Therefore the deity had to leave. Tanyou asked who the deity was, how long he had lived in the mountain and where he intended to go. The deity identified himself as a son of Emperor Xia 夏; he had lived in the mountain over two thousand years; he would go to Mt. Hanshi, under the governance of his maternal uncle, and stay there [temporarily]. Eventually, he would return to the shrine in Shanyin 山陰.(T. 2059: 50.396a1–14; Kōsōden, vol. iv, pp. 36–37)
Around the time the sun set, a heavy snow started. He went into a tiger’s den to spend the night. The tiger returned and lay in front of the cave, next to Fotiao. Fotiao apologized to the tiger for having taken his place, and the tiger drooped his ears and went down the mountain.(T. 2059: 50.387c27–29; Kōsōden, vol. iii, p. 351)
2.2. Tigers in Daoxuan’s Collection
Someone came to Deshan’s 徳山 (dates unknown) place. A tiger came chasing after the person. The guest hid under the bed and the tiger squatted by it. Deshan said to the tiger, “Is this person’s flesh tastier than mine?”, took off his clothes and offered himself to the tiger. The tiger rose and left for good.(T. 2060: 50.661c3–5; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 1060)
Snakes and mice lived together in peace [in the presence of Daoshun 道舜 (dates unknown)]. A tiger came and squatted by his side, and the monk would preach the Dharma. When people came around, the monk would let the tiger leave. Or, the monk would tell the tiger the day before not to come the following day. The tiger would then not appear the next day… His attendants lived along side of the tiger, treating it like a household dog, never fearing the animal.(577a3–8; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 681)7
In this story, the tigers appear to have become followers of Zhixiang and threatened the hostile Daoist priests.They feared that [Zhixiang] might convert their followers to Buddhism and refused to let him stay there. Tigers roared all night around the building. The Daoists became afraid. In the morning they came after Zhixiang and received the bodhisattva precepts.(T. 2060: 50.646a15–17; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 988)
But the ground below was covered with sharp thorny shrubs; they could not find a place to put their feet. They were tempted to back up, but feared discovery by soldiers. Frightened, they clung to the ropes. But the ropes could not hold for long. Saying to each other that in their disastrous straight they could only appeal to Avalokiteśvara, they hit a rock [repeatedly] with their heads and meditated single-mindedly. Suddenly a bright light appeared from the direction of the sunrise, revealing a place to land among the thorny shrubs. As soon as they touched the ground the light disappeared. They realized that this was a miraculous sign. They congratulated themselves and went to sleep.
The dawn broke and they heard the search party of soldiers depart [ordered to capture them]. [Senglang and his fellow students] were still lost deep in mountains and valleys. As they followed the sun, they met a large tiger. The students lamented that having escaped from captivity they were now going to be eaten by a tiger. But Senglang disagreed, claiming that they were under miraculous protection, first of the miraculous light and now of this tiger; the holy being (Avalokiteśvara) was leading them to the escape route. The tiger patiently guided them and disappeared when they got to the right path.(T. 2060: 50.646c18–647a2; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 992)
the tiger moved away. The tiger came back in the fall and the monk returned the cave to the animal. A mountain deity was in charge of the calendar and warned the monk if he came too early or stayed too late.(T. 2060: 50.575a11–13; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 672)
Thunder and fierce wind shook the mountain, breaking up trees. A supernatural snake circled around the seat [of the meditating monk] and tigers roared. Daomu’s mind remained peaceful, completely free from any thought about what was taking place outside. After seven days the animals disappeared. The monk climbed to the top of the mountain and looked around into the distance. To the east of the mountain was a steep cliff. To the west was a deep stream. [Daomu] decided to settle there for the rest of his life. The mountain deity appeared, apologizing for threatening him and identifying himself as the ruler of [the local] rice fields. The deity requested the monk to confer the Buddhist precepts on him.(T. 2060: 50.658b14–21; Xu gaoseng zhuan, pp. 1047–48)8
In this story, a tiger indicates the location of water, facilitating the formation of a monastic community. The story may thus be read as a somewhat oblique temple origin story.At one time, when his students stood attending to the monk in the evening, a tiger appeared and scraped the ground. In the morning people checked the ground and found it wet. When they scraped the ground further, a spring opened and its water flowed down to the valley stream… The spring was named after this occurrence.(T. 2060: 50.626a20–23; Xu gaoseng zhuan, pp. 906–7)
Facong built his temple at Baima 白馬 spring of Mt. Sangai 傘蓋 in Xiangyang 襄陽 … The prince of Jin’an 晋安 of Liang heard of the monk’s reputation and tried to visit him at his meditation hut. At first, mounted soldiers following him turned around for no apparent reason. The prince was embarrassed and returned. At night he had a bad dream. Later, the prince tried again, but the horses turned around again. Only after the prince underwent purification could he proceed to the side of the temple building. Suddenly the valley was filled with a fiercely burning fire. After a while the fire turned into water, which then disappeared and a temple building appeared. Upon inquiry the prince learned that master [Facong] was practicing the fire and water meditation. On each side of the meditation seat was a tiger. The prince dared not approach further; Facong then touched the heads of the tigers, which made them lie down on the ground and close their eyes. Invited to come forward, the prince greeted the master respectfully and [then] told the monk about some tigers that were causing harm in his lands, requesting help. The monk meditated. After a while seventeen large tigers arrived. The monk conferred the Three Refuges on them, instructing them not to harm the locals. Facong told his disciples to attach a piece of cloth on the neck of each tiger and instructed the tigers to return after seven days. On that day the prince hosted a large feast. Many came, and when the tigers arrived the monk gave food to them and removed the cloth. The tigers stopped harming people.
When Facong lived in the monastery, white deer and white sparrows frequently appeared. They were perfectly tame and stayed there. Facong practiced compassion everywhere. Once he saw a butcher herding over one hundred boars. Facong said “Liberate, Śūraṅgama” three times; the rope that bound the boars became unbound and all the animals scattered. The butcher became angry and tried to harm the monk. The monk remained firm, unmoved. The butcher then repented and gave up his profession. Facong pronounced the same spell three times to a fisherman, who then could not pull his net ashore.(T. 2060: 50.555c1–556a4; Xu gaoseng zhuan, pp. 581–82)
3. Snake Stories
3.1. Huijiao’s Collection
Toward the end of Emperor Ling’s 靈 reign (A.D., 169–189) An Shigao traveled south to avoid political disturbances, saying that he would visit Mt. Lu to bring salvation to his former fellow students. He reached the Gongting Lake shrine. The shrine was known for its [dangerous] miraculous powers and feared by boatmen …. An Shigao and fellow travelers offered a sacrifice to the shrine deity. The deity spoke through a medium, inviting the monk who was on one of the boats [namely An Shigao] to come to the shrine.
The deity explained that in a past life in a foreign country he and An Shigao had undergone the ceremony of renouncing the householder’s life at the same time and studied together. The deity was generous in giving donations, but because of his choleric temperament, he [was reduced in status and] became a shrine deity of the Gongting [lake]. His lifespan in this birth was to end soon. If he died in the lake, his large, long and ugly body would pollute it. He would have to move and die in the marshland to the west of the mountain. The deity was afraid that after death he would be reborn in hell. He offered a large amount of silk and other treasures in order to have a stūpa built and Buddhist rituals performed for his sake so that he would be reborn in a better realm.
An Shigao demanded that the deity reveal his body. The deity hesitated; his ugly body might frighten people. But the monk insisted and the deity raised his head from the altar. He was a giant snake. The length of its tail was unknown. The snake came close to An Shigao, and as An Shigao recited Sanskrit verses the deity shed tears like rain. Then it disappeared. An Shigao took the silk and left.
Wind filled the sails of the boats as they left the shore. Then, the snake appeared at the peak of a hill. People waved at it. After a while the snake disappeared. Soon the boats reached Yuzhang 豫章, where An Shigao built the East Temple with the treasures from the shrine.
Shortly after An Shigao left, the snake died. In the evening a youth appeared on the boat, kneeled in front of An Shigao, received a blessing with spells, and suddenly disappeared. An Shigao told the boatmen that the boy was Gongting shrine’s deity and that he had escaped his ugly body. Thereafter miraculous occurrences at the shrine ceased.
Later, people found in the marshland to the west of the mountain a corpse of a snake. From its head to the tail, it was several miles long. The place is the present Snake Village (shecun 蛇村) in the Xunyang 潯陽 Commandary.(T. 2059: 50.323b25–c22; Kōsōden, vol. i, pp. 39–41)
Thunder shook the Buddha Hall of Qingyuan 青園 monastery [in the capital city Jiankang]. A dragon rose up in the sky, illumining the Western wall… People said that since the dragon had now gone, Daosheng would also go. Unexpectedly Daosheng retired to Mt. Lu 廬 …. He ascended the dharma seat, and when his lecture was about to end, [the audience] saw him drop his fan. He passed away while lecturing there. Sitting up straight, he leaned on the desk and passed away. He looked as if he entered samādhi.(T. 2059: 50.366c29–367a12; Kōsōden, vol. iii, p. 36)
When there was a drought at Xunyang 潯陽 Huiyuan came to the side of a pond and recited the Ocean Dragon Scripture.9 Suddenly a giant snake (jushe 巨蛇) came out of the pond and went up into the sky. Shortly thereafter heavy rain fell. A rich harvest followed. The monastery where he was staying was then named the Dragon Spring temple.(T. 2059: 50.358a25–28; Kōsōden, vol. ii, pp. 201–2)
People at Fuyang 富陽 District had dug under the ground and destroyed the dragons’ residence, causing the angry dragons to stop the rain for three hundred days. Now after over a hundred days wells and ponds have dried up and we have not been able to plant in the fields for a long time. You, the dharma master, are fully endowed with virtue and supernatural powers. If you go there, you will be able to cause rain miraculously and benefit people. The merits for accomplishing this will then be attributed to you. Tanchao said, “The power to raise clouds and bring down rain belongs to you. How could I accomplish that?” The deity said, “My people can only raise clouds, but cannot bring down rain. That is why I came [to you] to make this request.” Tanchao accepted the request, and the deity quickly disappeared.
Tanchao travelled further south for five days and reached Mt. Chiting 赤亭. There he recited spells and preached for the dragons. At night a crowd of dragons, all taking on human appearance, came to Tanchao [in a dream] and he preached to them further. The dragons requested that the Three Refuges be conferred on them. After receiving the Three Refuges they confessed themselves to be dragons. Tanchao then asked them to bring rain. The dragons looked at each other but said nothing. That night they appeared again in a dream, saying, “At first we made that vow out of anger. Now that we have received the master’s instruction on goodness, we do not dare to disobey. Tomorrow toward the evening the rain will definitely come. ”
Early the next morning Tanchao went to Linquan 臨泉 monastery and sent messengers to the district magistrate to have a boat sent out into the river and the Ocean Dragon Scripture recited. The magistrate requested the monks to set the boat afloat at Shishou 石首. When the recitation of the scripture ended, heavy rain fell.(T. 2059: 50.400a11–b2; Kōsōden, vol. iv, pp. 99–100) (Shinohara 1994)
3.2. Snakes in Daoxuan’s Collection
The building was still not finished when two of his disciples Daoqi 道綦 and Daoping 道憑 meditated at the site. At night an animal that looked like a sheep entered and kicked the two disciples, who remained undisturbed. Seeing that, the animal went out into the courtyard. Farong meditated inside a rock cave at the mountain. A massive snake (shenshe 神蛇) with bright eyes shining like stars raised its head and threatened him. It stayed overnight at the entrance of the cave, and seeing Farong undisturbed, the snake went away. Farong stayed there for one hundred days. Many tigers used to roam on the mountain and people stayed away. After Farong entered the mountain, people were able to go there without fear. A group of deer lay in front of Farong’s room and listened to him, showing no fear. Two large deer entered the temple and listened to the Dharma for three years and left. Farong was compassionate to living beings; animals and birds gathered and took food from his hands.(T. 2060: 50.603c26–604a8; Xu gaoseng zhuan, pp. 798–99)
Suddenly, a large snake coiled in front of him, raising its head in a gesture of paying respect to him. After Senglin conferred the Three Refuges on it, the snake left.(T. 2060: 50.646b12-13; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 990)
Senglin was meditating outdoors, and a tiger squatted in front of him. Lowering its eyes, the tiger looked at the monk, who then preached to it. After a while the tiger left.(T. 2060: 50.646b19–21; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 990)
Zhixiang once saw an angler and advised him to stop [harming living creatures]. When the angler refused, Zhixiang spat in the water. Suddenly a large snake raised its head, looked around, and came toward them. The angler consequently took refuge [in the Buddha’s teaching] and renounced the householder’s life.(T. 2060: 50.646a17–19; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 988)
4. Bird Stories
4.1. Huijiao’s Collection
[This monk] lived in a mountain hut and carried water by crossing on a tree trunk placed over a stream. At one time a goose with a broken wing spread its wings at the bridge and bit [Sengqun] as he was crossing over the log. Sengqun was about to raise his staff to push the bird [out of the way]. But fearing that he might harm the bird, he turned around and came back. He stopped drinking water and died several days later. Shortly before his death the monk told someone that as a child he had broken a goose’s wing. The bird had become the cause of the monk’s death. This demonstrates that karmic effects may appear within the same birth (xianbao 現報).(T. 2059: 50.404a11–13; Kōsōden, vol. iv, p. 173)12
4.2. Birds in Daoxuan’s Collection
When the precepts were conferred a magpie (qianqiao 乾鵲) came up the steps as if to receive [the offering] of food. After the precepts were spelled out in the course of the ceremony, the bird flew away. When the meaning of the precepts was explained, two peacocks came running and would not leave. The birds listened to the emperor. The emperor said, “These birds are about to die and be reborn in a different realm.” A few days later the two birds died at the same time…
On the side of [Huiyue’s] Caotang 草堂 hermatage all creatures practiced compassion; deer gathered around tigers and rhinoceroses; wild ducks and sea gulls behaved in a friendly manner to hawks and falcons. Strange birds (yiniao 異鳥), their body red and with a kingfisher tail, flew around the trees.(T. 2060: 50.469b28–c17; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 185)
The monk in this story takes the appearance of the bird as an auspicious sign—evidence of his own purity.a strange bird, of unfamiliar color and shape, flew into the hall. It circled around going up and down, coming down to the desk and again up above the incense burner. Quiet and observant, the bird appeared to be tame and friendly. After a while it went away. The following year, when the completion of the copying was celebrated, the bird appeared again. Tame and undisturbed as before, it made a sad and clear sound. In Zhenguan 1 (627) when a Thousand Buddha painting[s were] made, the bird appeared once more and sat on the artisan’s shoulder. Later, when offerings were made to celebrate the completion of the painting and copying of scriptures, the bird did not appear until mid-day. Looking toward the mountain peak Facheng was saying that the impurity of his conduct might be responsible for this, when the bird suddenly appeared, flew around making sounds, and bathed in the perfumed water and flew away. Similar occurrences were repeated many times.(T. 2060: 50.689a7–23; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 1184)
Later, Zhiyi secured an imperial edict prohibiting fishing in a coastal area and declaring it a lake for releasing living beings; Zhiyi returned to Folong. Yellow sparrows filled the sky, joyfully calling at the monastery building for three days. Zhiyi said that these sparrows were in fact the fishes that he had saved and had come to thank him (T. 2060: 50.567c16–18; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 634).On the sixth day a strange bird (yiniao 異鳥) flew in and came to the altar, walked around and died. A short while later, the bird came back to life and flew away. The sound of pigs was also heard. Zhiyi said, “The signs appeared. The princess will be cured. The bird died and came back to life— this expresses that the coffin was closed but the corpse rises again. The strange sound of pigs indicates that the merits of the ceremony are realized”.(T. 2060: 50.567a13–17; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 632)
a strange bird (yiniao), neck white and body red, flew over the temple, uttering sad sounds. Closer to the time of death the bird came down. Not fearing people, first it went to the entrance of the room and then to the bed; it screamed in distress and its eyes became bloodshot. When the monk died, the bird flew away.(T. 2060:50.559b22–26; Xu gaoseng zhuan, pp. 597–98)13
5. Concluding Comments
Conflicts of Interest
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Bernard Faure spoke of “two types of vision of space” in characterizing a similar phenomenon (Faure 1987, p. 343).
According to its preface, Daoxuan’s collection is dated 645. The collection must have been completed in one form at this date. However, the content of the widely circulating version indicates that Daoxuan continued working on his collection beyond this date, adding further entries, until close to his death. Guo Shaolin critically edited and punctuated Daoxuan’s collection (Guo 2014). Old Japanese manuscripts recently made accessible to scholars shed light on the complex relationship among the different versions of Daoxuan’s collection (Institute of Japanese Manuscript Study 2014).
A similar pattern appears in other biographies: Guṇavarman (377–431) (340c11–24; i, 280–281]; Zhu Senglan 竺僧朗 (dates unknown) (354b19–21; vol. ii, p. 149).
A brief reference to Bo Sengguang, as the name of a strange star, occurs later in Tanyou’s biography, T. 2059: 50.395b11. The story of a miraculous stone bridge occupies a central place in Zhu Tanyou’s biography. The story of the stone bridge is attributed to monk Bo Daoyou or Zhu Daoyou in the Fayuan zhulin, T.2122: 53.594c15, p. 16. Ref., Kōsōden, vol. vi, p. 42, note 3. Zhu Tanyou appears to have been known by these names in other transmissions.
The following story attributed to Buddhayaśas (dates unknown) simply illustrates the young monk’s supernatural knowledge and may not illustrate the kind of relationship between this monk and a tiger that appears in other stories listed below. Buddhayaśas and his teacher encountered a tiger in a field. The teacher was about to flee, but Yaśas said that the tiger had eaten his fill and would not harm people. As they traveled further, they saw a carcass (T. 2059: 50.333c21–2; Kōsōden, vol. i, p. 188).
Monk 僧集 (dates unknown) is said to have kept snakes and mice, which were tame and ate food from his hands. They usually appeared together and refused to leave even when chased. When lay people came, they would hide (T. 2060: 50.569b13–16; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 643).
This biography presents its subject Daomu as a relatively early figure. It thus mentions monks Sengzhan and Seng’an. Seng’an’s Xugaoseng zhuan biography mentions the date of Wuping 4 of the Northern Qi (574). The biography also mentions Liu Qiu (427–495) of the Southern Qi. References are also made to inscriptions by Prince Xiao Yi of Liang dyanasty (r. 552–554) and verses attributed to Emperor Jianwen of Eastern Jin (r. 371–372). These references suggest a relatively early date for Daomu’s life, though their veracity cannot be taken for granted. Still, the subject appears to be deliberately presented in a relatively early history of the Chinese Buddhist community.
T. 598, Hailongwang jing海龍王經.
Zhu Fotudeng竺佛圖澄: T. 2059: 50.384a1–12; 385b14; Kōsōden, iii, 303; 319. Shegong渉公: T. 2059: 50.389b25–28; Kōsōden, vol. iii, p. 373.
According to the biographies, Mingchen 明琛 was a master of snake magic; he could take on the form of a snake himself. T. 2060: 50.656a6–b18; Xu gaoseng zhuan, pp. 983–84.
Birds often appear in accounts of death in Daoxuan’s biographies. However, the story is told differently there from this Sengqun story of karmic retribution.
The biographies of Sengchou and Tanxun tell very similar tiger pacification stories, as noted above. Tanxun studied under Sengchou, and these biographies might be related to each other in some way.
Other stories are summarized in the Appendix A below.
Snakes and other animals are also mentioned in some accounts of Renshou relic distribution. Sengtan’s 僧曇 (d. 605) biography tells a story about two small snakes (T. 2060: 50.506b12–15; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 358); Mingshun’s 明舜 (547–606) entry reports that a five-colored small snake was found when the foundation for the stūpa was dug (T. 2060: 50.511a20–22; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 381); Shanzhou’s 善胄 biography mentions eight boars and four black wasps, T. 2060: 50.519n25–27; Xu gaoseng zhuan, pp. 417–18). As noted above, the biography of Fayan also mentions a five-colored snake.
Snakes and other animals are also mentioned in some accounts of Renshou relic distribution. Shi Sengtan’s 僧曇 (–605) biography tells a story about two small snakes (T. 2060: 50.506b12–15; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 358); Shi Mingshun’s 明舜 (547–606) entry reports that a five-colored small snake was found when the foundation for the stūpa was dug (T. 2060: 50.511a20–22; Xu gaoseng zhuan, p. 381); Shi Shanzhou’s 善胄 biography mentions eight boars and four black wasps, T. 2060: 50.519n25–27; Xu gaoseng zhuan, pp. 417–18). As noted above the biography of Shi Fayan also mentions a five-colored snake.
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Shinohara, K. Animals in Medieval Chinese Biographies of Buddhist Monks. Religions 2019, 10, 348. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10060348
Shinohara K. Animals in Medieval Chinese Biographies of Buddhist Monks. Religions. 2019; 10(6):348. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10060348Chicago/Turabian Style
Shinohara, Koichi. 2019. "Animals in Medieval Chinese Biographies of Buddhist Monks" Religions 10, no. 6: 348. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10060348