Garbage Patches and Their Environmental Implications in a Plastisphere
2. Trends from the Literature
3. The Environmental Problems Caused by Garbage Patches
Conflicts of Interest
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|Name of Patch||Title of Article||Scope||Reference|
|North Pacific Garbage Patch||The Dirt on Ocean Garbage Patches||Provides an early overview of the Great Pacific Garbage patch and its contents.|||
|Reduce the Plastic Debris: A Model Research on the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch||Assessment of plastic debris in the patch and designing of models that may help reduce the plastic content in the future.|||
|Evidence that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is rapidly accumulating plastic||Summarizes the latest evidence of plastic constituents found in the patch.|||
|First evidence of plastic fallout from the North Pacific Garbage Patch||Details the correlation between plastic fallout at sea level and at the deeper levels.|||
|North Atlantic Garbage Patch||Plastic Accumulation in the North Atlantic Sub-tropical Gyre||Provides early evidence of the plastic found in the North Atlantic gyre and the accumulation associated with the garbage patch.|||
|The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea: an observational study in the North Atlantic Gyre||Provides information about the distribution of microplastics in the water column of the ocean.|||
|Plastics in the North Atlantic garbage patch: A boat-microbe for hitchhikers and plastic degraders||Summarizes the micro-organisms found on the surface of the patch.|||
|Transition paths of marine debris and the stability of the garbage patches||Assesses possible pathways of marine debris that lead to different gyres, including the North Atlantic gyre.|||
|South Pacific Garbage Patch||Origin, dynamics, and evolution of ocean garbage patches from observed surface drifters||Describes changes associated with the size of different garbage patches, including the South Pacific patch.|||
|Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre||Details the average abundance and mass of plastic particles found in the patch.|||
|Expedition finds South Pacific plastic patch bigger than India||Details the size and constituents of the patch following an assessment study.|||
|Double trouble in the South Pacific subtropical gyre: Increased plasticingestion by fish in the oceanic accumulation zone||The study found significant increases in plastic ingestion by fish in the area, which is harmful to consumers.|||
|South Atlantic Garbage Patch||The Garbage Patch in The Oceans: The Problem and Possible Solutions||Provides an overview of the patch, including surface area and density of particles.|||
|Litter survey detects the South Atlantic ‘garbage patch’||A study discovered the litter constituents of the patch, as well as how far it extends.|||
|Marine debris in Trindade Island, a remote island of the South Atlantic||Evidence shows that the pollution found within the gyre and patch negatively affects the flora and fauna of the island located on the edge of the gyre.|||
|Rapid increase in Asian bottles in the South Atlantic Ocean indicates major debris inputs from ships||The study found that bottle pollution from ships contributes greatly to the increased size of the patch.|||
|Indian Ocean Garbage Patch||Origin, dynamics, and evolution of ocean garbage patches from observed surface drifters||Describes changes associated with the size of the South Indian garbage patch and other evolutions.|||
|Role of Indian Ocean Dynamics on Accumulation of Buoyant Debris||Assesses the factors that influence accumulation at the garbage patch, including different currents.|||
|The transport and fate of marine plastics in South Africa and adjacent oceans||Details South Africa’s contribution to waste in the Indian ocean that may potentially feed the gyre and patch.|||
|Plastics in the Indian Ocean: Sources, fate, distribution and impacts||Describes the outcomes for plastics in the Indian ocean, including feeding the gyre and leakage to other gyres.|||
|Entanglement of marine life||Marine life is caught and trapped in the debris, especially larger species|
|Ghost fishing||Fishing through lost nets that are not recovered|
|Ingestion of debris||Plastic and other debris mistakenly eaten by bird/fish as food|
|Transport of foreign species||Ocean currents transport plant/animal|
species from one area to the other, away from their natural habitat,
with the risk of invasive ones
|Water contamination||Ocean currents may transport chemicals deriving from the decomposition of debris, which may impact sea fauna/flora|
|North Pacific Ocean||964.0||1234.0||3313.4|
|North Atlantic Ocean||564.7||722.9||1941.0|
|South Atlantic Ocean||127.8||163.6||439.3|
|South Pacific Ocean||210.2||269.1||722.5|
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Leal Filho, W.; Hunt, J.; Kovaleva, M. Garbage Patches and Their Environmental Implications in a Plastisphere. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 1289. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9111289
Leal Filho W, Hunt J, Kovaleva M. Garbage Patches and Their Environmental Implications in a Plastisphere. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(11):1289. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9111289Chicago/Turabian Style
Leal Filho, Walter, Julian Hunt, and Marina Kovaleva. 2021. "Garbage Patches and Their Environmental Implications in a Plastisphere" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 11: 1289. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9111289