Next Article in Journal
Evaluating Mooring Line Test Procedures through the Application of a Round Robin Test Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Delayed Fuzzy Output Feedback H Control for Offshore Structures
Article

The FuGas 2.5 Updated for the Effects of Surface Turbulence on the Transfer Velocity of Gases at the Atmosphere–Ocean Interface

1
MARETEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Centro de Ciências do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060435
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 6 June 2020 / Accepted: 7 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
Accurately estimating air–water gas exchanges requires considering other factors besides wind speed. These are particularly useful for coastal ocean applications, where the sea-state varies at fine spatial and temporal resolutions. We upgrade FuGas 2.5 with improved formulations of the gas transfer velocity parametrized based on friction velocity, kinetic energy dissipation, roughness length, air-flow conditions, drift current and wave field. We then test the algorithm with field survey data collected in the Baltic Sea during spring–summer of 2014 and 2015. Collapsing turbulence was observed when gravity waves were the roughness elements on the sea-surface, travelling at a speed identical to the wind. In such cases, the turbulence driven transfer velocities (from surface renewal and micro-scale wave breaking) could be reduced from ≈20 cm∙h−1 to ≤ 5 cm∙h−1. However, when peak gravity waves were too flat, they were presumably replaced by capillary-gravity waves as roughness elements. Then, a substantial increase in the turbulence and roughness length was observed, despite the low and moderate winds, leading to transfer velocities up to twice as large as those predicted by empirical u10-based formulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmosphere–ocean; gas exchange; friction velocity; roughness length; turbulent kinetic energy dissipation; wave age atmosphere–ocean; gas exchange; friction velocity; roughness length; turbulent kinetic energy dissipation; wave age
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vieira, V.M.N.C.S.; Mateus, M.; Canelas, R.; Leitão, F. The FuGas 2.5 Updated for the Effects of Surface Turbulence on the Transfer Velocity of Gases at the Atmosphere–Ocean Interface. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 435. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060435

AMA Style

Vieira VMNCS, Mateus M, Canelas R, Leitão F. The FuGas 2.5 Updated for the Effects of Surface Turbulence on the Transfer Velocity of Gases at the Atmosphere–Ocean Interface. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(6):435. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060435

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vieira, Vasco M.N.C.S., Marcos Mateus, Ricardo Canelas, and Francisco Leitão. 2020. "The FuGas 2.5 Updated for the Effects of Surface Turbulence on the Transfer Velocity of Gases at the Atmosphere–Ocean Interface" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8, no. 6: 435. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060435

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop