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Hard-Rock Coastal Modelling: Past Practice and Future Prospects in a Changing World

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7020034
Received: 12 January 2019 / Revised: 26 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 3 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Morphodynamics II)
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Abstract

This paper reviews the history of conceptual and numerical modelling of hard rock coasts (mean annual cliff erosion typically < 1 mm up to 1 cm) and its use in studying coastal evolution in the past and predicting the impact of the changing climate, and especially rising sea level, in the future. Most of the models developed during the last century were concerned with the development and morphology of shore-normal coastal profiles, lacking any sediment cover, in non-tidal environments. Some newer models now consider the plan shape of rock coasts, and models often incorporate elements, such as the tidally controlled expenditure of wave energy within the intertidal zone, beach morphodynamics, weathering, changes in relative sea level, and the role of wave refraction and sediment accumulation. Despite these advances, the lack of field data, combined with the inherent complexity of rock coasts and uncertainty over their age, continue to inhibit attempts to develop more reliable models and to verify their results. View Full-Text
Keywords: modelling; rock coast; climate change; Quaternary; rising sea level modelling; rock coast; climate change; Quaternary; rising sea level
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Trenhaile, A.S. Hard-Rock Coastal Modelling: Past Practice and Future Prospects in a Changing World. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7, 34.

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