The tree is a fundamental living being. It contributes to nature and climate behaviour, as well to urban greening. It is also a source of wealth and employment. Most tree health inspection techniques are invasive or even destructive. Infrared thermography (IRT) is not invasive, and it has shown advantages when applied for inspection to trees and wood to detect deterioration or voids that could compromise its structure, stability, and durability. This study reviews the literature about IRT applied to a tree health inspection. It is framed in the context of the importance of trees for the balance of ecosystems, and the different techniques to detect tree deterioration. It highlights the difference when applied to wood or trees and the main factors that have been proven to cause disturbances in the thermal pattern of trees. The IRT, as other non-destructive methods, does not distinguish what type of damage it is, nor its causative agent. However, it enables identifying healthy and deteriorated tissues. The technology is very promising since it reveals that is efficient, fast, economical, and sustainable.
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