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Squalene Epoxidase Inversely Correlates E-Cadherin Expression and Prolongs Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients: The Impact on Prognosis and Correlation to Clinicopathologic Features

1
Department of Pathology, Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon 35233, Korea
2
Department of Surgery, Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon 35233, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(5), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8050632
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
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Abstract

Squalene epoxidase (SE), coded by SQLE, is an important rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Recently, the aberrant expression of SQLE, which is responsible for epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), has been reported in various types of cancer. This study was undertaken to clarify the clinicopathologic implications of SE in patients with stage I to IV colorectal cancer (CRC). We also analyzed the expression patterns of SE in association with E-cadherin in a series of CRCs. We detected the cytoplasmic expression of SE in 59.4% of carcinoma samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC). There was a significant correlation between a high level of SE expression and lymphovascular (LV) invasion (p < 0.001), tumor budding (p < 0.001), invasion depth (p = 0.002), regional lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001), and pathologic TNM stage (p < 0.001). SE is more abundantly expressed at the invasive front, and reversely correlated with E-cadherin expression. Patients with SE-positive CRC had shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) and poor overall survival (OS) than those with SE-negative CRC in multivariate analysis (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). These data suggest that SE can serve as a valuable biomarker for unfavorable prognosis, and as a possible therapeutic target in CRCs.
Keywords: squalene epoxidase (SE); SQLE; E-cadherin; immunohistochemistry; colorectal cancer squalene epoxidase (SE); SQLE; E-cadherin; immunohistochemistry; colorectal cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, J.H.; Kim, C.N.; Kang, D.W. Squalene Epoxidase Inversely Correlates E-Cadherin Expression and Prolongs Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients: The Impact on Prognosis and Correlation to Clinicopathologic Features. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 632.

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