Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we investigated whether undergoing a hysterectomy increases the risk of depression. A total of 7872 patients aged 30–49 years who underwent a hysterectomy from 2000 to 2013 were enrolled as the hysterectomy group. The comparison group was randomly selected from women who had never undergone a hysterectomy and was four times the size of the hysterectomy group. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depression [The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 296.2, 296.3, 300.4, 311] in these cohorts after adjusting for age, comorbidities, oophorectomy, and hormone therapy. The overall incidence of depression was 1.02 and 0.66 per 100 person-years in the hysterectomy and comparison cohorts, respectively, yielding an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.35 (95% CI = 1.22–1.50) for depression risk. When we stratified patients by age, comorbidities, oophorectomy, and hormone use, hysterectomy increased the risk of depression. Hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and post-surgery hormone use were associated with an increased risk of depression when they occurred alone, but conferred a greater risk if they were considered jointly. Hysterectomy would be a predisposing factor for increased risk of subsequent depression. Our findings provide vital information for patients, clinicians, and the government for improving the treatment strategy in the future.
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