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Pathophysiology of Hemophilic Arthropathy
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Ultrasound for Early Detection of Joint Disease in Patients with Hemophilic Arthropathy

Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University, 80131 Naples, Italy
Dipartimento di Ortopedia—Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
Radiologia III—IRCCS San Martino-IST—DISSAL, Università di Genova, 16132 Genova, Italy
Department of Public Health, Federico II University, 80131 Naples, Italy
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University, 80131 Naples, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Massimo Morfini and Giovanni Di Minno
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(8), 77;
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Advances in Hemophilia Therapies)
Joint bleeding represents the most commonly reported type of hemorrhage in patients affected by hemophilia. Although the widespread use of prophylaxis has been able to significantly reduce the onset of arthropathy, it has been shown that a non-negligible percentage of patients develop degenerative changes in their joints despite this type of treatment. Thus, periodic monitoring of the joint status in hemophilia patients has been recommended to identify early arthropathic changes and prevent the development or progression of hemophilic arthropathy. Ultrasound (US) has proven able to detect and quantify the most relevant biomarkers of disease activity (i.e., joint effusion and synovial hypertrophy) and degenerative damages (i.e., osteo-chondral changes) by means of scoring scales of increasing disease severity. In the present review, we have detailed major literature evidence about the use of US to assess joint status in hemophilia patients, focusing on signs of disease activity and degenerative damages. In particular, we have discussed recent evidence about “point-of-care” use patients with hemophilia. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemophilia; hemophilic arthropathy; ultrasound; imaging hemophilia; hemophilic arthropathy; ultrasound; imaging
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Di Minno, M.N.D.; Pasta, G.; Airaldi, S.; Zaottini, F.; Storino, A.; Cimino, E.; Martinoli, C. Ultrasound for Early Detection of Joint Disease in Patients with Hemophilic Arthropathy. J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6, 77.

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