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J. Clin. Med., Volume 4, Issue 2 (February 2015) , Pages 204-368

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Open AccessArticle
What Should General Practice Trainees Learn about Atopic Eczema?
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(2), 360-368; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4020360
Received: 12 December 2014 / Revised: 5 January 2015 / Accepted: 20 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2081 | PDF Full-text (64 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effective atopic eczema (AE) control not only improves quality of life but may also prevent the atopic march. The Royal College of General Practitioners’ (RCGP) curriculum does not currently provide specific learning outcomes on AE management. We aimed to gain consensus on learning [...] Read more.
Effective atopic eczema (AE) control not only improves quality of life but may also prevent the atopic march. The Royal College of General Practitioners’ (RCGP) curriculum does not currently provide specific learning outcomes on AE management. We aimed to gain consensus on learning outcomes to inform curriculum development. A modified Delphi method was used with questionnaires distributed to gather the views of a range of health care professionals (HCPs) including general practitioners (GPs), dermatologists, dermatology nurses and parents of children with AE attending a dedicated paediatric dermatology clinic. Ninety-one questionnaires were distributed to 61 HCPs and 30 parents; 81 were returned. All agreed that learning should focus on the common clinical features, complications and management of AE and the need to appreciate its psychosocial impact. Areas of divergence included knowledge of alternative therapies. Parents felt GPs should better understand how to identify, manage and refer severe AD and recognized the value of the specialist eczema nurse. Dermatologists and parents highlighted inconsistencies in advice regarding topical steroids. This study identifies important areas for inclusion as learning outcomes on AE management in the RCGP curriculum and highlights the importance of patients and parents as a valuable resource in the development of medical education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Treatment of Atopic Eczema)
Open AccessReview
Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(2), 343-359; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4020343
Received: 24 December 2014 / Revised: 24 December 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 4998 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Potential Role of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPSCs) for Cell-Based Therapy of the Ocular Surface
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(2), 318-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4020318
Received: 23 November 2014 / Revised: 24 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2839 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integrity and normal function of the corneal epithelium are crucial for maintaining the cornea’s transparency and vision. The existence of a cell population with progenitor characteristics in the limbus maintains a dynamic of constant epithelial repair and renewal. Currently, cell-based therapies for [...] Read more.
The integrity and normal function of the corneal epithelium are crucial for maintaining the cornea’s transparency and vision. The existence of a cell population with progenitor characteristics in the limbus maintains a dynamic of constant epithelial repair and renewal. Currently, cell-based therapies for bio replacement—cultured limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) and cultured oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (COMET)—present very encouraging clinical results for treating limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and restoring vision. Another emerging therapeutic approach consists of obtaining and implementing human progenitor cells of different origins in association with tissue engineering methods. The development of cell-based therapies using stem cells, such as human adult mesenchymal or induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs), represent a significant breakthrough in the treatment of certain eye diseases, offering a more rational, less invasive, and better physiological treatment option in regenerative medicine for the ocular surface. This review will focus on the main concepts of cell-based therapies for the ocular surface and the future use of IPSCs to treat LSCD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of OCT-Derived Drusen Measurements with AMD-Associated Genotypic SNPs in the Amish Population
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(2), 304-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4020304
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 23 December 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2114 | PDF Full-text (129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the association of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived drusen measures in Amish age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with known loci for macular degeneration. Methods: Members of the Old Order Amish community in Pennsylvania ages 50 and older were assessed for drusen [...] Read more.
Purpose: To investigate the association of optical coherence tomography (OCT)-derived drusen measures in Amish age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients with known loci for macular degeneration. Methods: Members of the Old Order Amish community in Pennsylvania ages 50 and older were assessed for drusen area, volume and regions of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy using a Cirrus High-Definition OCT. Measurements were obtained in the macula region within a central circle (CC) of 3 mm in diameter and a surrounding perifoveal ring (PR) of 3 to 5 mm in diameter using the Cirrus OCT RPE analysis software. Other demographic information, including age, gender and smoking status, were collected. Study subjects were further genotyped to determine their risk for the AMD-associated SNPs in the SYN3, LIPC, ARMS2, C3, CFB, CETP, CFI and CFH genes using TaqMan genotyping assays. The association of genotypes with OCT measures were assessed using linear trend p-values calculated from univariate and multivariate generalized linear models. Results: 432 eyes were included in the analysis. Multivariate analysis (adjusted by age, gender and smoking status) confirmed the known significant association between AMD and macular drusen with the number of CFH risk alleles for the drusen area (the area increased 0.12 mm2 for a risk allele increase, p < 0.01), drusen volume (the volume increased 0.01 mm3 for a risk allele increase, p ≤ 0.05) and the area of RPE atrophy (the area increased 0.43 mm2 for a risk allele increase, p = 0.003). SYN3 risk allele G is significantly associated with larger area PR (the area increased 0.09 mm2 for a risk allele increase, p = 0.03) and larger drusen volume in the central circle (the volume increased 0.01 mm3 for a risk allele increase, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Among the genotyped SNPs tested, the CFH risk genotype appears to play a major role in determining the drusen phenotype in the Amish AMD population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Disease)
Open AccessReview
Tapping Stem Cells to Target AMD: Challenges and Prospects
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(2), 282-303; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4020282
Received: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 29 January 2015
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2722 | PDF Full-text (437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are increasingly gaining attention in biomedicine as valuable resources to establish patient-derived cell culture models of the cell type known to express the primary pathology. The idea of “a patient in a dish” aims at basic, but also [...] Read more.
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are increasingly gaining attention in biomedicine as valuable resources to establish patient-derived cell culture models of the cell type known to express the primary pathology. The idea of “a patient in a dish” aims at basic, but also clinical, applications with the promise to mimic individual genetic and metabolic complexities barely reflected in current invertebrate or vertebrate animal model systems. This may particularly be true for the inherited and complex diseases of the retina, as this tissue has anatomical and physiological aspects unique to the human eye. For example, the complex age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in Western societies, can be attributed to a large number of genetic and individual factors with so far unclear modes of mutual interaction. Here, we review the current status and future prospects of utilizing hPSCs, specifically induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), in basic and clinical AMD research, but also in assessing potential treatment options. We provide an outline of concepts for disease modelling and summarize ongoing and projected clinical trials for stem cell-based therapy in late-stage AMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Disease)
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Open AccessReview
HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(2), 260-281; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4020260
Received: 11 November 2014 / Revised: 13 December 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 29 January 2015
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3354 | PDF Full-text (156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. [...] Read more.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances of Human Papillomaviruses)
Open AccessReview
Myogenic Precursors from iPS Cells for Skeletal Muscle Cell Replacement Therapy
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(2), 243-259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4020243
Received: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 29 January 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3039 | PDF Full-text (148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of adult myogenic stem cells as a cell therapy for skeletal muscle regeneration has been attempted for decades, with only moderate success. Myogenic progenitors (MP) made from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising candidates for stem cell therapy to regenerate [...] Read more.
The use of adult myogenic stem cells as a cell therapy for skeletal muscle regeneration has been attempted for decades, with only moderate success. Myogenic progenitors (MP) made from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are promising candidates for stem cell therapy to regenerate skeletal muscle since they allow allogenic transplantation, can be produced in large quantities, and, as compared to adult myoblasts, present more embryonic-like features and more proliferative capacity in vitro, which indicates a potential for more self-renewal and regenerative capacity in vivo. Different approaches have been described to make myogenic progenitors either by gene overexpression or by directed differentiation through culture conditions, and several myopathies have already been modeled using iPSC-MP. However, even though results in animal models have shown improvement from previous work with isolated adult myoblasts, major challenges regarding host response have to be addressed and clinically relevant transplantation protocols are lacking. Despite these challenges we are closer than we think to bringing iPSC-MP towards clinical use for treating human muscle disease and sporting injuries. Full article
Open AccessReview
Interventions to Increase Treatment Adherence in Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(2), 231-242; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4020231
Received: 15 September 2014 / Revised: 10 December 2014 / Accepted: 18 December 2014 / Published: 27 January 2015
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3411 | PDF Full-text (188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Poor adherence to treatment is a major factor limiting treatment outcomes in patients with atopic dermatitis. The purpose of our systematic review is to identify techniques that have been tested to increase treatment adherence in atopic dermatitis. A MEDLINE search was performed for [...] Read more.
Poor adherence to treatment is a major factor limiting treatment outcomes in patients with atopic dermatitis. The purpose of our systematic review is to identify techniques that have been tested to increase treatment adherence in atopic dermatitis. A MEDLINE search was performed for clinical trials focusing on interventions used to increase adherence in atopic dermatitis. Four articles were retrieved. References of these studies were analyzed yielding three more trials. The seven results were evaluated by comparing the intervention used to improve adherence, how adherence was assessed, and the outcome of the intervention tested. Different approaches to increase adherence such as written eczema action plans, educational workshops, extra office visits, and use of an atopic dermatitis educator were evaluated. All interventions increased adherence rates or decreased severity in patients, except for two. The MEDLINE search yielded limited results due to a lack of studies conducted specifically for atopic dermatitis and adherence was measured using different methods making the studies difficult to compare. Interventions including patient education, eczema action plans, and a quick return for a follow-up visit improve adherence, but based on the lack of clinical trials, developing new techniques to improve adherence could be as valuable as developing new treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Treatment of Atopic Eczema)
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Open AccessReview
Recent Insights into the Control of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genome Stability, Loss, and Degradation
J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(2), 204-230; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm4020204
Received: 6 November 2014 / Revised: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 18 December 2014 / Published: 27 January 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3520 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most human papillomavirus (HPV) antiviral strategies have focused upon inhibiting viral DNA replication, but it is increasingly apparent that viral DNA levels can be chemically controlled by approaches that promote its instability. HPVs and other DNA viruses have a tenuous relationship with their [...] Read more.
Most human papillomavirus (HPV) antiviral strategies have focused upon inhibiting viral DNA replication, but it is increasingly apparent that viral DNA levels can be chemically controlled by approaches that promote its instability. HPVs and other DNA viruses have a tenuous relationship with their hosts. They must replicate and hide from the DNA damage response (DDR) and innate immune systems, which serve to protect cells from foreign or "non-self" DNA, and yet they draft these same systems to support their life cycles. DNA binding antiviral agents promoting massive viral DNA instability and elimination are reviewed. Mechanistic studies of these agents have identified genetic antiviral enhancers and repressors, antiviral sensitizers, and host cell elements that protect and stabilize HPV genomes. Viral DNA degradation appears to be an important means of controlling HPV DNA levels in some cases, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. These findings may prove useful not only for understanding viral DNA persistence but also in devising future antiviral strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Advances of Human Papillomaviruses)
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J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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