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Review

Benefits from Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Post-Stroke Rehabilitation

1
Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, Milionowa 14, 93-113 Lodz, Poland
2
Biohazard Prevention Centre, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
3
Department of General Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chris Baeken, Virginie Moulier and Francesca Morgante
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082149
Received: 21 March 2022 / Accepted: 11 April 2022 / Published: 12 April 2022
Stroke is an acute neurovascular central nervous system (CNS) injury and one of the main causes of long-term disability and mortality. Post-stroke rehabilitation as part of recovery is focused on relearning lost skills and regaining independence as much as possible. Many novel strategies in neurorehabilitation have been introduced. This review focuses on current evidence of the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), in post-stroke rehabilitation. Moreover, we present the effects of specific interventions, such as low-frequency or high-frequency rTMS therapy, on motor function, cognitive function, depression, and aphasia in post-stroke patients. Collected data suggest that high-frequency stimulation (5 Hz and beyond) produces an increase in cortical excitability, whereas low-frequency stimulation (≤1 Hz) decreases cortical excitability. Accumulated data suggest that rTMS is safe and can be used to modulate cortical excitability, which may improve overall performance. Side effects such as tingling sensation on the skin of the skull or headache are possible. Serious side effects such as epileptic seizures can be avoided by adhering to international safety guidelines. We reviewed clinical studies that present promising results in general recovery and stimulating neuroplasticity. This article is an overview of the current rTMS state of knowledge related to benefits in stroke, as well as its cellular and molecular mechanisms. In the stroke rehabilitation literature, there is a key methodological problem of creating double-blinding studies, which are very often impossible to conduct. View Full-Text
Keywords: post-stroke; rehabilitation; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; noninvasive brain stimulation; motor function; cognitive function; depression; aphasia post-stroke; rehabilitation; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; noninvasive brain stimulation; motor function; cognitive function; depression; aphasia
MDPI and ACS Style

Starosta, M.; Cichoń, N.; Saluk-Bijak, J.; Miller, E. Benefits from Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Post-Stroke Rehabilitation. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082149

AMA Style

Starosta M, Cichoń N, Saluk-Bijak J, Miller E. Benefits from Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Post-Stroke Rehabilitation. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(8):2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082149

Chicago/Turabian Style

Starosta, Michał, Natalia Cichoń, Joanna Saluk-Bijak, and Elżbieta Miller. 2022. "Benefits from Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Post-Stroke Rehabilitation" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 8: 2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082149

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