The Effect of COVID-19 on the Menstrual Cycle: A Systematic Review
2. Materials and Methods
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|First Author, Year||Type of Study||Comparison||Sample Size||Sample Characteristics||Inclusion Criteria||Exclusion Criteria|
|Li et al., 2021 ||Cross-sectional hospital-based study||COVID-19 patients vs. controls and COVID-19 patients during disease vs. before||177 cases (119 non-severe cases, 58 severe); 91 controls||Average age 36||Women between 18 and 45 years old;|
|Pregnant or lactating; history of a diagnosis of ovarian dysfunction in the 6 months before onset of disease: manifestation of delayed menses, menstrual irregularities, or earlier menopause; prior hysterectomy or oophorectomy|
|Khan et al., 2021 ||Prospective population-based cohort study||COVID-19 patients that reported a change in menstrual cycle after infection vs. COVID-19 patients that reported no changes||127 (20 participants that reported a change in their menstrual cycle after infection, 107 participants that did not report a change)||Patients that reported menstrual cycle irregularities: mean age 30.5; mean BMI 28.1.|
Patients that did not report menstrual cycle irregularities: mean age 30.6; mean BMI 27.6
|SARS-CoV-2-positive participants that were 18 to 45 years old, identified as women or nonbinary||Currently or recently pregnant, as of January 2020|
|Ding et al., 2021 ||Cross-sectional hospital-based study||Severe vs. non-severe COVID-19 cases||78 (61 non-severe cases, 17 severe)||Median age 43, median BMI 22.7, all had one child or more, 48% had a recent mental disorder, 12% had a history of benign gynecological disease, 36% had undergone gynecological surgery||Female patients of reproductive age and younger than 50||Ovarian diseases or ovarian surgery history;|
denial of request for blood collection;
taking oral or transdermal estrogen-containing products
|First Author, Year||Main Findings|
|Li et al., 2021 ||Forty-five (25%) patients presented with menstrual volume changes and fifty (28%) patients had menstrual cycle changes, mainly concerning decreased volume (20%) and a prolonged cycle (19%);|
severely ill patients had more comorbidities than mildly ill patients (34% versus 8%).
|Khan et al., 2021 ||People that reported changes in their menstrual cycle after SARS-CoV-2 infection reported more COVID-19 symptoms than those that did not. The mean age (30.5 vs. 30.6) and the mean BMI (28.1 vs. 27.0) of the two groups were similar. The percentage of patients of Hispanic ethnicity was higher among the patients that had reported menstrual cycle changes (50% vs. 24.3%).|
|Ding et al., 2021 ||Menstrual status (p = 0.55), menstrual volume (p = 0.066), phase of menstrual cycle (p = 0.58), and dysmenorrhea history (p = 0.12) were similar without significant differences between non-severe and severe COVID-19 women|
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Lebar, V.; Laganà, A.S.; Chiantera, V.; Kunič, T.; Lukanović, D. The Effect of COVID-19 on the Menstrual Cycle: A Systematic Review. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 3800. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133800
Lebar V, Laganà AS, Chiantera V, Kunič T, Lukanović D. The Effect of COVID-19 on the Menstrual Cycle: A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(13):3800. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133800Chicago/Turabian Style
Lebar, Vojka, Antonio Simone Laganà, Vito Chiantera, Tina Kunič, and David Lukanović. 2022. "The Effect of COVID-19 on the Menstrual Cycle: A Systematic Review" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 13: 3800. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11133800