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Gender-Based Differences by Age Range in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Spanish Observational Cohort Study

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Internal Medicine Department, Royo Villanova Hospital, Avenida San Gregorio 30, 50015 Zaragoza, Spain
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Aragon Institute of Health Research, IIS-Aragon, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Bellvitge University Hospital-IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08901 Barcelona, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, 12 de Octubre University Hospital, 28041 Madrid, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Gregorio Marañon University Hospital, 28007 Madrid, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, La Paz University Hospital, 28046 Madrid, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, San Carlos Clinical Hospital, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Cabueñes Hospital, 33394 Gijón, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Puerta de Hierro University Hospital, 28222 Majadahonda, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Santiago Clinical Hospital, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, La Princesa University Hospital, 28006 Madrid, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, A Coruña University Hospital, 15006 A Coruna, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Moisès Broggi Hospital, 08970 Sant Joan Despí, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Dr. Peset University Hospital, 45017 Valencia, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Costa del Sol Hospital, 29603 Málaga, Spain
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General Internal Medicine Department, San Juan de Alicante University Hospital, 03550 Alicante, Spain
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Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Miguel Hernández University, 03202 Alicante, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Juan Ramón Jiménez Hospital, 21005 Huelva, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Son Llàtzer University Hospital, 07120 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Río Hortega University Hospital, Regional Health Management of Castilla y Leon (SACYL), 47012 Valladolid, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Marqués de Valdecilla University Hospital, 39008 Santander, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Doctor José Molina Orosa Hospital, 25005 Arrecife, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Elda University General Hospital, 03600 Alicante, Spain
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Internal Medicine Department, Infanta Cristina University Hospital, 28981 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
A complete list of the SEMI-COVID-19 Network members is provided in the Appendix A.
Academic Editor: Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050899
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 5 February 2021 / Accepted: 13 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Special Populations and Risk Factors)
There is some evidence that male gender could have a negative impact on the prognosis and severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The aim of the present study was to compare the characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between hospitalized men and women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. This multicenter, retrospective, observational study is based on the SEMI-COVID-19 Registry. We analyzed the differences between men and women for a wide variety of demographic, clinical, and treatment variables, and the sex distribution of the reported COVID-19 deaths, as well as intensive care unit (ICU) admission by age subgroups. This work analyzed 12,063 patients (56.8% men). The women in our study were older than the men, on average (67.9 vs. 65.7 years; p < 001). Bilateral condensation was more frequent among men than women (31.8% vs. 29.9%; p = 0.007). The men needed non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation more frequently (5.6% vs. 3.6%, p < 0.001, and 7.9% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001, respectively). The most prevalent complication was acute respiratory distress syndrome, with severe cases in 19.9% of men (p < 0.001). In men, intensive care unit admission was more frequent (10% vs. 6.1%; p < 0.001) and the mortality rate was higher (23.1% vs. 18.9%; p < 0.001). Regarding mortality, the differences by gender were statistically significant in the age groups from 55 years to 89 years of age. A multivariate analysis showed that female sex was significantly and independently associated with a lower risk of mortality in our study. Male sex appears to be related to worse progress in COVID-19 patients and is an independent prognostic factor for mortality. In order to fully understand its prognostic impact, other factors associated with sex must be considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; COVID-19; Spain; gender differences SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; COVID-19; Spain; gender differences
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MDPI and ACS Style

Josa-Laorden, C.; Crestelo-Vieitez, A.; García Andreu, M.d.M.; Rubio-Rivas, M.; Sánchez, M.; Toledo Samaniego, N.; Arnalich Fernández, F.; Iguaran Bermudez, R.; Fonseca Aizpuru, E.M.; Vargas Núñez, J.A.; Pesqueira Fontan, P.M.; Serrano Ballesteros, J.; Freire Castro, S.J.; Pestaña Fernández, M.; Viana García, A.; Nuñez Rodriguez, V.; Giner-Galvañ, V.; Carrasco Sánchez, F.J.; Hernández Milián, A.; Cobos-Siles, M.; Napal Lecumberri, J.J.; Herrero García, V.; Pascual Pérez, M.d.l.R.; Millán Núñez-Cortés, J.; Casas Rojo, J.M.; on behalf of the SEMI-COVID-19 Network. Gender-Based Differences by Age Range in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Spanish Observational Cohort Study. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 899. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050899

AMA Style

Josa-Laorden C, Crestelo-Vieitez A, García Andreu MdM, Rubio-Rivas M, Sánchez M, Toledo Samaniego N, Arnalich Fernández F, Iguaran Bermudez R, Fonseca Aizpuru EM, Vargas Núñez JA, Pesqueira Fontan PM, Serrano Ballesteros J, Freire Castro SJ, Pestaña Fernández M, Viana García A, Nuñez Rodriguez V, Giner-Galvañ V, Carrasco Sánchez FJ, Hernández Milián A, Cobos-Siles M, Napal Lecumberri JJ, Herrero García V, Pascual Pérez MdlR, Millán Núñez-Cortés J, Casas Rojo JM, on behalf of the SEMI-COVID-19 Network. Gender-Based Differences by Age Range in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Spanish Observational Cohort Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(5):899. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050899

Chicago/Turabian Style

Josa-Laorden, Claudia; Crestelo-Vieitez, Anxela; García Andreu, María d.M.; Rubio-Rivas, Manuel; Sánchez, Marcos; Toledo Samaniego, Neera; Arnalich Fernández, Francisco; Iguaran Bermudez, Rosario; Fonseca Aizpuru, Eva M.; Vargas Núñez, Juan A.; Pesqueira Fontan, Paula M.; Serrano Ballesteros, Jorge; Freire Castro, Santiago J.; Pestaña Fernández, Melani; Viana García, Alba; Nuñez Rodriguez, Victoria; Giner-Galvañ, Vicente; Carrasco Sánchez, Francisco J.; Hernández Milián, Almudena; Cobos-Siles, Marta; Napal Lecumberri, Jose J.; Herrero García, Virginia; Pascual Pérez, Maria d.l.R.; Millán Núñez-Cortés, Jesús; Casas Rojo, José M.; on behalf of the SEMI-COVID-19 Network. 2021. "Gender-Based Differences by Age Range in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Spanish Observational Cohort Study" J. Clin. Med. 10, no. 5: 899. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050899

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