Next Article in Journal
Iminodiacetic Acid (IDA) Cation-Exchange Nonwoven Membranes for Efficient Capture of Antibodies and Antibody Fragments
Next Article in Special Issue
Artificial Kidney Engineering: The Development of Dialysis Membranes for Blood Purification
Previous Article in Journal
Glucoregulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Peptide Fractions Separated by Electrodialysis with Ultrafiltration Membranes from Salmon Protein Hydrolysate and Identification of Four Novel Glucoregulatory Peptides
Previous Article in Special Issue
Analytical Solutions of a Two-Compartment Model Based on the Volume-Average Theory for Blood Toxin Concentration during and after Dialysis
 
 
Article

Electron Microscopic Confirmation of Anisotropic Pore Characteristics for ECMO Membranes Theoretically Validating the Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Permeation

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kindai University, 930 Nishimitani, Kinokawa-city, Wakayama 649-6493, Japan
2
Industrial Technology Center of Wakayama Prefecture, 60 Ogura, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 649-6261, Japan
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fabio Silvio Taccone
Membranes 2021, 11(7), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11070529
Received: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 12 July 2021 / Published: 14 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes in Biomedical Engineering: Assisting Clinical Engineers)
The objective of this study is to clarify the pore structure of ECMO membranes by using our approach and theoretically validate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 permeation. There has not been any direct evidence for SARS-CoV-2 leakage through the membrane in ECMO support for critically ill COVID-19 patients. The precise pore structure of recent membranes was elucidated by direct microscopic observation for the first time. The three types of membranes, polypropylene, polypropylene coated with thin silicone layer, and polymethylpentene (PMP), have unique pore structures, and the pore structures on the inner and outer surfaces of the membranes are completely different anisotropic structures. From these data, the partition coefficients and intramembrane diffusion coefficients of SARS-CoV-2 were quantified using the membrane transport model. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 may permeate the membrane wall with the plasma filtration flow or wet lung. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 permeation is completely different due to each anisotropic pore structure. We theoretically demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 is highly likely to permeate the membrane transporting from the patient’s blood to the gas side, and may diffuse from the gas side outlet port of ECMO leading to the extra-circulatory spread of the SARS-CoV-2 (ECMO infection). Development of a new generation of nanoscale membrane confirmation is proposed for next-generation extracorporeal membrane oxygenator and system with long-term durability is envisaged. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO); artificial lung; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); COVID-19; plasma leakage; ECMO infection; polypropylene (PP); silicone layer; polymethylpentene (PMP) extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO); artificial lung; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO); COVID-19; plasma leakage; ECMO infection; polypropylene (PP); silicone layer; polymethylpentene (PMP)
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fukuda, M.; Furuya, T.; Sadano, K.; Tokumine, A.; Mori, T.; Saomoto, H.; Sakai, K. Electron Microscopic Confirmation of Anisotropic Pore Characteristics for ECMO Membranes Theoretically Validating the Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Permeation. Membranes 2021, 11, 529. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11070529

AMA Style

Fukuda M, Furuya T, Sadano K, Tokumine A, Mori T, Saomoto H, Sakai K. Electron Microscopic Confirmation of Anisotropic Pore Characteristics for ECMO Membranes Theoretically Validating the Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Permeation. Membranes. 2021; 11(7):529. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11070529

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fukuda, Makoto, Tomoya Furuya, Kazunori Sadano, Asako Tokumine, Tomohiro Mori, Hitoshi Saomoto, and Kiyotaka Sakai. 2021. "Electron Microscopic Confirmation of Anisotropic Pore Characteristics for ECMO Membranes Theoretically Validating the Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Permeation" Membranes 11, no. 7: 529. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11070529

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop