Next Article in Journal
Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Application: Perspective on Morphological Structure
Previous Article in Journal
Visible-Light Active Photocatalytic Dual Layer Hollow Fiber (DLHF) Membrane and Its Potential in Mitigating the Detrimental Effects of Bisphenol A in Water
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fabrication of Defect-Free P84® Polyimide Hollow Fiber for Gas Separation: Pathway to Formation of Optimized Structure
Open AccessReview

Microscopy and Spectroscopy Techniques for Characterization of Polymeric Membranes

Petroleum Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat 13109, Kuwait
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2020, 10(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10020033
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 21 January 2020 / Accepted: 24 January 2020 / Published: 24 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Gas Separation)
Polymeric membrane is a proven technology for water purification and wastewater treatment. The membrane is also commercialized for gas separation, mainly for carbon dioxide removal and hydrogen recovery. Characterization techniques are excellent tools for exploring the membrane structure and the chemical properties. This information can be then optimized to improve the membrane for better performance. In this paper, characterization techniques for studying the physical structure such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are discussed. Techniques for investigating the crystal structure such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) are also considered. Other tools for determining the functional groups such Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are reviewed. Methods for determining the elemental composition such as energy-dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are explored. The paper also gives general guidelines for sample preparation and data interpretation for each characterization technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas-separation membrane; membrane characterization; surface analysis; crystal structure; functional groups; elemental composition gas-separation membrane; membrane characterization; surface analysis; crystal structure; functional groups; elemental composition
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Alqaheem, Y.; Alomair, A.A. Microscopy and Spectroscopy Techniques for Characterization of Polymeric Membranes. Membranes 2020, 10, 33.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop