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Vaccines 2019, 7(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010030

Heterotypic Neuraminidase Antibodies Against Different A(H1N1) Strains are Elicited after Seasonal Influenza Vaccination

1
Microbiology Service, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Avenida Ramón y Cajal s/n, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
2
Valladolid National Influenza Centre, Avenida Ramón y Cajal s/n, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogen-Host Interactions: Implications for Vaccine Design)
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Abstract

Neuraminidase (NA) content is not standardized in current seasonal influenza vaccines; neither anti-NA antibodies (anti-NA Abs) are measured nor is it well-defined as a correlate of humoral protection. In this work, the presence of NA1 antibodies against classical A(H1N1) and A(H1N1) pdm09 subtypes was studied before and after vaccination with seasonal vaccines containing A/California/07/2009 strain (A(H1N1) pdm09 subtype). By Enzyme-Linked Lectin Assay (ELLA; Consortium for the Standardization of Influenza Seroepidemiology), we analyzed serum samples from two different cohorts (adults and elderly). The presence of anti-NA Abs at titers ≥1/40 against classical A(H1N1) and A(H1N1) pdm09 subtypes were frequently found in both age groups, in 81.3% and 96.3% of adults and elderly, respectively. The higher titers of anti-NA Abs (NAI titers) were detected more frequently against classical A(H1N1) strains according to the expected age when the first flu infection takes place. In this way, an Original Antigenic Sin phenomenon related to NA seems to be part of the immune response against flu. Seasonal-vaccination induced homologous seroconversion against NA of A(H1N1) pdm09 subtype in 52.5% and 55.0%, and increased the Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs) in 70.0% and 78.8% of adults and elderly, respectively. Seasonal vaccination also induced a heterotypic anti-NA Abs response against classical A(H1N1) strains (seroconversion at least in 8.8% and 11.3% of adults and elderly, respectively, and an increase in GMTs of at least 28.0% in both age groups). These anti-NA Abs responses occur even though the seasonal vaccine does not contain a standardized amount of NA. This work demonstrates that seasonal vaccines containing the A(H1N1) pdm09 subtype induce a broad antibody response against NA1, that may be a target for future influenza vaccines. Our study is one of the first to analyze the presence of Abs against NA and the response mediated by NAI titers after seasonal influenza vaccination. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuraminidase; original antigenic sin; seasonal influenza vaccination neuraminidase; original antigenic sin; seasonal influenza vaccination
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Mendez-Legaza, J.M.; Ortiz de Lejarazu, R.; Sanz, I. Heterotypic Neuraminidase Antibodies Against Different A(H1N1) Strains are Elicited after Seasonal Influenza Vaccination. Vaccines 2019, 7, 30.

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