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Open AccessArticle

Salivary FRAP as A Marker of Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Children

1
Department of Hygiene, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-233 Bialystok, Poland
2
Department of Pedodontics, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-274 Bialystok, Poland
3
Department of Pediatrics and Nephrology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-274 Bialystok, Poland
4
Department of Conservative Dentistry, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-274 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(9), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8090409
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 16 September 2019 / Accepted: 17 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most common modern-age diseases in children. Kidney failure does not reveal any symptoms for a long time; therefore, new biomarkers are sought, preferably those reflecting an early stage of CKD. The aim of our study was to evaluate total antioxidant potential as a biomarker differentiating the degree of CKD advancement. The study included 30 children with CKD and a control group matched by age and gender. Non-stimulated saliva (NWS), stimulated saliva (SWS), plasma and urine were used as study material. Total antioxidant potential was determined spectrophotometrically using the FRAP method (ferric ion reducing antioxidant parameter) by measuring total FRAP and uric acid (UA)-independent FRAP (FRAP-UA). We demonstrated that total FRAP, FRAP-UA and UA were significantly higher in stimulated saliva, as well as urine of CKD patients compared to the controls. These biomarkers increase with the progression of chronic kidney disease and their concentration in SWS reflects their content in urine. Interestingly, salivary FRAP and uric acid clearly differentiate between various stages of CKD as well as between healthy and ill children. Special attention should be paid to total FRAP which—measured in SWS—distinguishes patients with mildly to moderately decreased kidney function from those with severe renal impairment (AUC = 1, sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 100%). Although salivary FRAP may be a potential CKD biomarker in children, further studies are needed in a larger group of patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; salivary biomarkers; redox homeostasis; salivary FRAP chronic kidney disease; salivary biomarkers; redox homeostasis; salivary FRAP
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Maciejczyk, M.; Szulimowska, J.; Taranta-Janusz, K.; Werbel, K.; Wasilewska, A.; Zalewska, A. Salivary FRAP as A Marker of Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Children. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 409.

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