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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Intravenous Iron on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease

1
School of Life Sciences (Biomedical), University of Hull, Kingston upon Hull HU67RX, UK
2
Hull York Medical School & Department of Renal Medicine, Hull University Teaching Hospitals Trust, Anlaby Road, Kingston upon Hull HU32JZ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100498
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), a common complication in CKD, is associated with poor clinical outcomes affecting mitochondrial function and exacerbating oxidative stress. Intravenous (iv) iron, that is used to treat anaemia, may lead to acute systemic oxidative stress. This study evaluated the impact of iv iron on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Methods: Uraemia was induced surgically in male Sprague-Dawley rats and studies were carried out 12 weeks later in two groups sham operated and uraemic (5/6 nephrectomy) rats not exposed to i.v. iron versus sham operated and uraemic rats with iv iron. Results: Induction of uraemia resulted in reduced iron availability (serum iron: 31.1 ± 1.8 versus 46.4 ± 1.4 µM), low total iron binding capacity (26.4 ± 0.7 versus 29.5 ± 0.8 µM), anaemia (haematocrit: 42.5 ± 3.0 versus 55.0 ± 3.0%), cardiac hypertrophy, reduced systemic glutathione peroxidase activity (1.12 ± 0.11 versus 1.48 ± 0.12 U/mL), tissue oxidative stress (oxidised glutathione: 0.50 ± 0.03 versus 0.36 ± 0.04 nmol/mg of tissue), renal mitochondrial dysfunction (proton/electron leak: 61.8 ± 8.0 versus 22.7 ± 5.77) and complex I respiration (134.6 ± 31.4 versus 267.6 ± 26.4 pmol/min/µg). Iron therapy had no effect on renal function and cardiac hypertrophy but improved anaemia and systemic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. There was increased renal iron content and complex II and complex IV dysfunction. Conclusion: Iron therapy improved iron deficiency anaemia in CKD without significant impact on renal function or oxidant status. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaemia; chronic kidney disease; iron; mitochondrial dysfunction; oxidative stress anaemia; chronic kidney disease; iron; mitochondrial dysfunction; oxidative stress
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Nuhu, F.; Seymour, A.-M.; Bhandari, S. Impact of Intravenous Iron on Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Experimental Chronic Kidney Disease. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 498.

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