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Antioxidants 2018, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7020023

Resuspendable Powders of Lyophilized Chalcogen Particles with Activity against Microorganisms

1
Division of Bioorganic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany
2
Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, University of Marburg, 35037 Marburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inspired by Nature: Antioxidants and Nanotechnology)
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Abstract

Many organic sulfur, selenium and tellurium compounds show considerable activity against microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. This pronounced activity is often due to the specific, oxidizing redox behavior of the chalcogen-chalcogen bond present in such molecules. Interestingly, similar chalcogen-chalcogen motifs are also found in the elemental forms of these elements, and while those materials are insoluble in aqueous media, it has recently been possible to unlock their biological activities using naturally produced or homogenized suspensions of respective chalcogen nanoparticles. Those suspensions can be employed readily and often effectively against common pathogenic microorganisms, still their practical uses are limited as such suspensions are difficult to transport, store and apply. Using mannitol as stabilizer, it is now possible to lyophilize such suspensions to produce solid forms of the nanoparticles, which upon resuspension in water essentially retain their initial size and exhibit considerable biological activity. The sequence of Nanosizing, Lyophilization and Resuspension (NaLyRe) eventually provides access to a range of lyophilized materials which may be considered as easy-to-handle, ready-to-use and at the same time as bioavailable, active forms of otherwise insoluble or sparingly substances. In the case of elemental sulfur, selenium and tellurium, this approach promises wider practical applications, for instance in the medical or agricultural arena. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial activity; chalcogen nanoparticles; mannitol; resuspended lyophilized nanosuspensions (NaLyRe); sulfur; selenium; tellurium antimicrobial activity; chalcogen nanoparticles; mannitol; resuspended lyophilized nanosuspensions (NaLyRe); sulfur; selenium; tellurium
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Griffin, S.; Sarfraz, M.; Hartmann, S.F.; Pinnapireddy, S.R.; Nasim, M.J.; Bakowsky, U.; Keck, C.M.; Jacob, C. Resuspendable Powders of Lyophilized Chalcogen Particles with Activity against Microorganisms. Antioxidants 2018, 7, 23.

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